Esty's Guide to Late Roman AE Coin Types, AD 364-450:
A Complete List
    Valentinian I through Theodosius II and Valentinian III

A resource for collectors of Late Roman AE coins.
    Types, rarities, and commentary.
Organized by emperor.
Organized by reverse type
.

This is a fun area to collect because the history is interesting and the coins are among the least expensive of all ancient coins, while there are many rare types that can be found occasionally to keep you interested (for four decades, in my case!). To the upper right is a coin of the very common Type 5 of the emperor Valens (AD 364-378). 

The ten most common emperors
(Click the images to go to all of their AE coin types)
 
Valentinian, 364-375 Valens, 364-378 Gratian, 367-383 Valentinian II, 375-392 Theodosius, 379-395

Magnus Maximus
383-388

Arcadius, 383-408 Honorius, 393-423 Theodosius II, 402-450 Valentinian III, 425-455

Links to the other emperors and their wives (in chronological order) (in alphabetical order)

   (This is an educational site, not a sale site. If you want to see coins like these for sale, look here.)

What's New?  2022, April 10: Additional Aelia Flaccilla images
2022, April 3:  A discovery type varient of Type 24 with VOT X MVLT XXX for Valentinian II. 
2022, Jan. 28: This page completely reformatted with new and larger images and new navigation. Finding coins by emperor is now easier. The type set for Valentinian II is now illustrated. Other type sets now illustrated with better images. 

 

Search (e.g. for legends) with "Control-F".

Contents: This is a huge site with over 100 pages. Find what you want by starting here.
         Images of all reverse types (just below)
         Type sets for each emperor.  (Emperors listed chronologically or, alphabetically, linked to their types)
         Information about coins of the period, including 
              What do all those abbreviations (like "AE3") mean?
              What's in all those tablesHow do I use them? 
              A timeline of events that determine who issued coins when (names and dates).
         Four TABLES of types and issuers, with links to discussion and images.
   Table 1 (364-378) images, Table 1 (Types 1-12)    (Valentinian to the death of Valens, 364 - 375. This begins RIC IX.)
   Table 2 (378-395) images, Table 2 (Types 13-43)   (ending with the death of Theodosius, 375 - 395. This ends RIC IX.)
   Table 3 (395-423) images, Table 3 (Types 44-59)   (ending with the death of Honorius, 395 - 423. This begins RIC X.)
   Table 4 (423-450) images, Table 4 (Types 60-81)   (Theodosius II and Valentinian III, 423 - 450. These are in RIC X.)
         Table contents outlined and explained.
         Reference works (both numismatic and history books).  

Copyright (c) Warren W. Esty. All rights reserved. You are encouraged to print the tables for personal use as a collecting checklist, and for that you have my permission. However, no other reproduction is allowed without my explicit written permission (which I not yet declined to give to people who ask).
If you would like to discuss the coins of this time period,  e-mail me at:
e-mail 



Images of most reverse types (in chronological order):   Click on the images to go to the corresponding page.  N.B. Images preserve relative type sizes. 
Types 1-12 (364 - 378) Valentinian, Valens, Gratian, Valentinian II, Theodosius I, Arcadius. These are in RIC IX:
 

VOT V
MVLT X

RESTITVTOR
REIP
RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE GLORIA ROMANORVM 
Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 (cf. 6)

 

GLORIA
ROMANORVM
SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE REPARATIO
FEL TEMP
REPARATIO
FEL TEMP
Type 5 Type 6 Type 7 Type 8

 

SECVRITAS
REIPVB

GLORIA NOVI
SAECVLI

GLORIA
ROMANORVM

FELICITAS
ROMANORVM

Type 8A Type 9 Type 10 Type 11

Types 1-12 are in Table 1. Types 13-43 are in Table 2.
Types 13-29 (378 - 395)
Gratian, Valentinian II, Theodosius, Magnus Maximus, Flavius Victor, Arcadius: These are in RIC IX. 

VICTORIA
AVGGG

VRBS
ROMA
VICTORIA
AVGGG
CONCORDIA
AVGGG 
CONCORDIA
AVGGG
Type 12 (AE4) Type 13 Type 14 (AE3) Type 15 Type 16

 

CONCORDIA
AVGGG

REPARATIO
REIPVB
VIRTVS
ROMANORVM
GLORIA ROMANORVM 
Type 17 Type 18 Type 19 Type 20

 

SALVS
REIPVBLICAE

SALVS
REIPVBLICAE
SALVS
REIPVBLICAE
VOT XX
MVLT XXX 
Type 21 Type 22 Type 23 Type 24

 

VOT XV
MVLT XX

VOT X
MVLT XX
VICTORIA
AVGGG
VOT V
MVLT X 
VOT V
 
Type 25 Type 26 Type 27 Type 28 Type 29

Types 13-29 are in the first half of Table 2. Types 30-43 are in the second half of Table 2.
Types 13-43 (378 - 395)
Gratian, Valentinian II, Theodosius, Magnus Maximus, Flavius Victor, Arcadius): These are in RIC IX.

VOT IS
V

VIRTVS
EXERCITI
VICTORIA
AVGG
VICTORIA
AVGGG 
Type 30 Type 31 Type 32 Type 33

 

VIRTVS
AVGGG

GLORIA ROMANORVM
(only Arcadius)
SPES
ROMANORVM
Type 34 Type 35 Type 36

 

GLORIA
REPVBLICE

GLORIA
REPVBLICE

SALVS
REPVBLICAE

SPES
REPVBLICAE

Type 37 Type 38 Type 39

Type 40

 

 [no image]
Victory Advancing left
Type 44

AE4
GLORIA 
ROMANORVM

GLORIA 
ROMANORVM

SPES
ROMANORVM

VICTORIA
AVGG

Type 41 Type 42 Type 43

Type 44

Types 30-43 above are in the second half of Table 2
Types 44-59 begin after the death of Theodosius in 395 and are in Table 3. They are in RIC X

 Types 44-59 (395 - 423) Arcadius, Honorius, Theodosius II, Valentinian III. 

VIRTVS 
EXERCITI

CONCORDIA 
AVG(GG)

CONCORDIA
AVGG

GLORIA
ROMANORVM

Type 45 Type 46 Type 47

Type 48

 

[no image]
Victory Advancing left
Type 50

AE4

 
[no image]
Emperor with standard and shield 
Type 53

AE3

VRBS ROMA
FELIX

VICTORIA
ROMANORVM
GLORIA
ROMANORVM
GLORIA
ROMANORVM
 
GLORIA
ROMANORVM
 
Type 49 Type 50 Type 51 Type 52 Type 53

 


[no image]
Emperor raises female 
Type 58

AE2

(only Maximus of Barcelona)

GLORIA
ROMANORVM

VICTORIA
AVGG(G)
SALVS
REIPVBLICAE
GLORIA
ROMANORVM
 
VICTORIA
AVGG(G)
 
Type 54 Type 55 Type 56 Type 57

Type 58

Types 60-72 are in the first half of Table 4. Types 73-83 are in the second half of Table 4.
Types 60-83.  Theodosius II, Valentinian III. See Table 4. These are in RIC X

  [no image]        Victory
    adv. left
   Type 59
 Small AE3

(only Maximus of Barcelona)

 

VICTORIA
AVGGG

SALVS
REIPVBLICAE
GLORIA
ROMANORVM
GLORIA
ROMANORVM
 
GLORIA
ROMANORVM
 
Type 59 Type 60 (cf 66) Type 61 Type 62 Type 63

 

[no image]
Emperor
and shield
Type 64


AE4

 

VRTVS [sic]
ROMANORVM

SALVS
REIPVBLICAE
(thick cross)
SALVS
REIPVBLICAE
CONCORDIA
AVG 
(no legend,
Cross in wreath) 
Type 64 Type 65 Type 66 (cf 60) Type 67

Type 68

 


[no image]
Emperor with trophy drags captive
Type 69

AE4

(only Valentinian III)

 

[no image]
Emperor with wreath drags captive
Type 70

AE4

(only Valentinian III)

VICTORIA
AVGG

VICTORIA
AVGG
VOT
PVB
VOT
XX 
VICTORIA
AVG 
Type 69 Type 70 Type 71 Type 72

Type 73

 


 

VT XXX
V

CONCORDIA
AGV [sic]
Monogram of
Theodosius II
VOT
XV
ROMA
(campgate) 
Type 74 Type 75 Type 76 Type 77 Type 83

Types 78 to 82 are very rare and not pictured. Each is a tiny and very poorly produced AE4 of Valentinian III. Their legends are never clear. Table 4 has a short description of each. Page links: Type 78, Type 79, Type 80, Type 81, TType 82.
 




Table 1 Types initiated 364-378 (period from Valentinian I, 364, ending with the death of Valens in 378) (Table 1 images)
              Key to the tables.

AE      reverse types     Table 1 ID   date V Vn G V2 T MM A H T2 V3 other
3 VOT / V / MVLT / X in wreath 1    364 S                    
3 RESTITVTOR REIP  emp stg w vict on  globe 2 364-367 C C                  
1 RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE  emp stg 3 364-367 S 2 4                
3 GLORIA ROMANORVM   Vict adv left 4 364-378 3 2 2 3              
3 GLORIA ROMANORVM   emp. drags captive 5 364-388 C C C C C   S        
3 SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE   Vict adv left 6 364-378 C C C C              
3 REPARATIO FEL TEMP  (bust left) emp   chi rho 7 365-366                     P-S
3 REPARATIO FEL TEMP  (bust right, no chi-rho) 8 365-366                     P-S
3 SECVRITAS REIBVP emp. front with standard 8A 365-366                     P-2
3 GLORIA NOVI SAECVLI   emp w labarum 9 367-375     S                
2 GLORIA ROMANORVM  camp gate 10 367-375 2 2 2                
3 FELICITAS ROMANORVM   Vict adv left  11 375-378   3 2 5              
4 VICTORIA AVGGG   Victory adv left 12 375-395   4 4 C C   C 3     E-3
AE      reverse type          [end of Table 1] ID  date V Vn G V2 T   A H     other


Go to a supplement listing very rare but attested types that are possibly mint errors or recording errors.
Go to:  Emperor list (chronological), (alphabetical).
 This was  Table 1 (364-378) images, Table 1 (types 1-12)   (Valentinian to the death of Valens)
     Table 2 (378-395) images, Table 2 (types 13-43)   (ending with the death of Theodosius)
     Table 3 (395-423) images, Table 3 (types 44-59)   (ending with the death of Honorius)
     Table 4 (423-450) images, Table 4 (types 60-81)     (Theodosius II and Valentinian III).
Go to the Table of Contents, near the top of the page.

Rarity notes:  There are huge numbers of types 1-8 coming out of the Balkans now and the old RIC IX rarity ratings from 1933 are not up to date for any mint that sent coins to the Balkans, particularly Siscia, Thessalonica, and Sirmium, as well as, to a lesser extent, other nearby eastern mints. Therefore, I have changed some of the ratings. Those changed to more common are in this color (dark red). Those changed to rarer are in this color (dark green). Types 7 and 8, of Procopius, were "R2" or "R3" in RIC, but are now common. However, they are still "scarce" in nice condition, hence the "S" in the rarity column.  

Type notes:
4  has the type of SECVRITAS REPVBLICAE with the legend GLORIA ROMANORVM
8A, a relatively recent discovery, was not listed in RIC.
11  has the type of SECVRITAS REPVBLICAE but the legend FELICITAS ROMANORVM.
12  VICTORIA AVGGG,  is very similar to several other types in the tables. Type 12 is difficult to distinguish from Type 44, which is a continuation of the same type at Trier with GG instead of GGG for a short while after the death of Theodosius. Type 14 is similar but distinctly larger.  Type 27 is similar, but has 2 G's for Magnus Maximus. An example with GG for Theodosius is probably just an error. Type 55 is similar but cruder, usually with type too large for the flan.

 



Table 2:  Types initiated 378-395 (After the death of Valens and before the death of Theodosius. This table finishes the types of RIC IX.) (Table 2 images)

AE      reverse types       Table 2 ID   date V Vn G V2 T MM A H T2 V3 other
3 VRBS ROMA   Roma std l 13 378-383       C              
3 VICTORIA AVGGG    Vict adv l (AE3, not AE4) 14 378-383     2 R 2            
3 CONCORDIA AVGGG   Roma std hd left, globe left 15 378-383     C C S            
3 CONCORDIA AVGGG   Con. std hd right, globe right 16 378-383     S S C   3        
3 CONCORDIA AVGGG   Con. std turrettd hd facing, no globe 17 378-383     R   S            
2 REPARATIO REIPVB  emp raises kneeling female 18 378-388     C C C C          
3 VIRTVS ROMANORVM   Roma std l 19 378-383     C 4 2            
2 GLORIA ROMANORVM  emp on galley 20 378-388     C C C   3        
2 SALVS REIPVBLICAE   Vict insc chi-rho on shield 21 378-388                     AF-C
4 SALVS REIPVBLICAE   Vict insc chi-rho on shield 22 378-388                     AF-S
2 SALVS REIPVBLICAE   empress standing 23 383-388                     AF-R
4 VOT / XX / MVLT / XXX in wreath 24 378-383     S S R   R        
4 VOT / X / MVLT / XXX in wreath 24A 378-383         4            
4+ VOT / XV / MVLT / XX in wreath 25 378-383     C R R            
4 VOT / X / MVLT / XX in wreath 26 378-388     C C C   C        
4 VICTORIA AVGG   Vict adv l 27 383-388           2          
4 VOT / V / MVLT / X in wreath 28 378-388     R R C 3 4        
4 VOT / V in wreath 29 383-388     R R S   C        
AE      reverse type (Table 2, second half, images) ID   date V Vn G V2 T MM A H T2 V3 other
4 VO / TIS / V  in wreath 30 383-388           2          
2 VIRTVS EXERCITI  emp stg r, foot on captive 31 383-388       C C 4 C        
2 VICTORIA AVGG   emp stg left Vict on globe 32 383-388           S          
4 VICTORIA AVG(GG)  two Victories facing each other 33 383-388       S S   S        
3 VIRTVS AVGGG  emp on galley left 34   385       S S   S        
2 GLORIA ROMANORVM (obv w hand of God) 35 383-388              C        
4 SPES ROMANORVM  camp gate 36 387-388           C         FV-S
3 GLORIA REIPVBLICE  camp gate (obv bust left) 37   388       2 R   2        
4 GLORIA REIPVBLICE  camp gate 38   388       S S   S        
4 SALVS REIPVBLICAE   Vict l drags captive 39 388-403       C C   C C      
3 SPES REIPVBLICAE  emp l, hd r., foot on captive left 40 388-391        4 4   4        
2 GLORIA ROMANORVM  emp w. std and globe 41 393-395         C   C C      
3 GLORIA ROMANORVM  emp on horseback 42 392-395         C   C C      
4 SPES ROMANORVM   Vict adv l 43 393-394                     E-2
AE         reverse type        [end of Table 2] ID   date V Vn G V2 T MM A H T2 V3 other


Go to a supplement listing very rare but attested types that are possibly mint errors or recording errors.

Table 2 Type notes:
14  "VICTORIA AVGGG" is an AE3 of a type common as AE4 (type 12).
15  and 16  are very similar. On type type 16, Constantinopolis looks right and her foot rests on a tiny prow (left) and she holds a globe to the right. On type 15, Roma looks left and holds a globe to the left. There is a variant with no globe listed under type 16.
17  is just like the AE3 type 16, but smaller. It is only from one mint (Trier) and extremely rare. It cannot be a significant issue and I wonder if it is an ancient imitation. 
20  is "irregular for Arcadius" and the two examples in DO have the "hand of God" obverse expected on type 35.  
24  has an extremely rare variant:  AE4.  VOT / X / MVLT / XXX in wreath. RIC IX, Ant 57, "R5," which I have added in as type 24A.
27  for Magnus Maximus with two G's, is very similar to type 12 which has 3 G's.  
29  "VOT / V" has at least one example with an engraver's error: VOT X
31  "VIRTVS EXERCITI": For Arcadius at Constantinople the obverse spells out the whole title "AVGVSTVS", but always as "AVGVSIVS" with "I" for "T". Reference works do not seem to acknowledge this. Is the substitution because the pronunciation was changing? Elsewhere, the usual "AVG" is found.
36  "SPES ROMANORVM, camp gate." This is the only type of Flavius Victor in AE.
37  and 38 are similar. Type 37 is AE3, "camp gate," has bust left and is "scarce" in RIC, but really is quite rare. It is an AE3 with the same reverse as type 38.
38  AE4, "camp gate," with bust right, has an AE3 version, type 37, with consular bust left.
39  AE4, "SALVS REPVBLICAE, Victory left drags captive" was issued over many years with minor variations treated as one type here. After AD 395 it has a chi-rho in field left. A cruder version with the same types was minted by Johannes for himself and Theodosius II (type 60).

Tables 2 and 2A complete the list of types in RIC IX, which ends at AD 395 with the death of Theodosius, part way through the reigns of Arcadius and Honorius. DO begins with all issues of Arcadius (beginning in 383) and Honorius (beginning in 393), but has no coins of Theodosius I. The types of Arcadius and Honorius in Table 2 can be found in both RIC IX and DORIC X resumes in 395 where RIC IX leaves off.

Go to the images from Table 2.

 



Table 3:  Types initiated AD 395-423, after the death of Theodosius I and before Valentinian III.
    Only Arcadius, Honorius, and Theodosius II.  (These types are in RIC X and DO.)
Size note: AE3's and AE4's are of reduced sizes, so an "AE3" in this table is smaller than an AE3 from Tables 1 or 2. (Table 3 images)

AE      reverse types       Table 3 ID   date V Vn G V2 T MM A H T2 V3 other
4 VICTORIA AVGG   Vict adv left 44    395             2 2      
3 VIRTVS EXERCITI   Vict crowns emp 45 395-401             C C      
4 CONCORDIA AVG(GG)  cross 46 395-408             C C C    
3 CONCORDIA AVGG (facing bust) 47 401-403             S S S    
3 GLORIA ROMANORVM  three emps, middle smaller 48 403-408             C C C    
3 VRBS ROMA FELIX   Roma stg, hd. r 49 404-408             R R 2    
3 VICTORIA ROMANORVM   Vict adv l  star in field 50 409-410                     PA-3
3 GLORIA ROMANORVM   two emps standing 51 408-423               C C    
3 GLORIA ROMANORVM   two emps w globe 52 408-423               C S    
3 GLORIA ROMANORVM emp w standard, shield 53 411-415               2      
3 GLORIA ROMANORVM   emp w 2 captives 54 409-410               R      
3-4 VICTORIA AVGG(G)   Vict. adv. l 55 410-435               S 4 S J-4
3 SALVS REIPVBLICAE   Vict std, insc shield 56 400-401                     Ex-S, Pu-4
3 GLORIA ROMANORVM  empress std facing 57 402-404                     Ex-S
2 VICTORIA AVGGG   emp raises female 58 410-411                     Mx-4
3 VICTORIA AVGGG   Vict adv l 59 410-411                     Mx-3
AE      reverse type     [end of Table 3] ID   date             A H T2 V3 other

 
   Go to a supplement listing very rare but attested types that are possibly mint errors or recording errors.

Go to the images from Table3.

Table 3 rarity notes: In this and the following time period even the "common" coins may be very difficult to find in a pleasing condition. Most types are crowded or very crowded. Most of the coins circulated a long time and are very worn. In terms of the number of "full VF" coins offered, a "rare" coin in this period is as hard to find as an "extremely rare" coin of an earlier century.

Identification note: Coins of Theodosius II often have a star behind the head. If a coin of "THEODOSIVS" has a star behind the head, it is Theodosius II, not Theodosius I.

Table 3 type notes:
44  "VICTORIA AVGG" is a continuation of type 12 with GG for GGG. See also type 55, which is cruder. It can be confused with type 27. Type 14 is a larger AE3 version.
45  Table 3A,1 is the same type, but (accidentally?) for Eudoxia.
49  "VRBS ROMA FELIX" for Theodosius II is erroneously in RIC IX where it is attributed to Theodosius I. It also comes in a very reduced size with much of the type off the flan (Here is an example).
52  "two emperors with globe" was called "emperor receiving globe from Jupiter" in LRBC.
56, and 57: Eudoxia's obverses have "hand of God" crowning her.
56   "SALVS REIPVBLICAE" has Victory inscribing shield variously with chi-rho, chi-iota, or cross.
58 and 59  are the only AE for Maximus, AD 410-411, RIC p.351.

 



Table 4:  Types initiated AD 423-450 (Theodosius II and Valentinian III)
Note: AE3's and AE4's are of much reduced sizes, so an "AE3" in this table is smaller than an AE3 from Tables 1 or 2. (Table 4 images)

AE      reverse types      [Table 4] ID   date V Vn G V2 T MM A H T2 V3 other
3 SALVS REIPVBLICAE   Vict drags captive 60 423-425                 R   J-R
3 GLOR ORVIS TERRAR 61 423-425                 3    
4 CONCORDIA AVG   empress std facing 62 423-425                     Pu-4
Pc-4
Ec-4
4 CONCORDIA AVGV  emp stg w cross on globe 63 423-425                 3    
4 VRTVS ROMANORVM   emp w st, shield 64   420's                 4 4  
4 SALVS REIPVBLICAE   thick cross 65 423-425                   4 Pc-3
4 SALVS REIPVBLICE   Vict adv l 66 425-430                   S Pc-3
4 CONCORDIA AVG Vict facing w two wreaths 67 425-435                 R 3  
4 cross in wreath (or cross-rho) 68 425-455                 C R  
3/4 VICTORIA AVGG   Vict left, strd/trophy, captive 69 430-437                   2  
4 VICTORIA AVGG    Victory, wreath, captive 70 430-437                   2  
4 VOT PVB  camp gate 71 430-437                   R  
4 VOT / XX in wreath 72 434-435                   R  
AE     reverse type ID   date                 T2 V3 other
4 VICTORIA AVGG,  2 Victs holding one wreath 73 430-437                   R  
4 VT / XXX / V in wreath 74   435                 R    
2 CONCORDIA AGV   2 emps with long cross 75   437                 3 4  
3 monogram of Theodosius II in wreath 76 445-450                 S    
3/4 VOT / XV in wreath 77  c. 440                   2  
3/4 VICTO AVG  emp r, captive, strd (variously spelled) 78 440-455                   2  
4 VICTO(RIA) AVG   emp Virtus? l, globe and spear 79 440-450                   2  
4 VICTORIA AVG  Vict. left, wreath, palm 80 440-455                   R  
4 [VICTORIA] AVGVST  camp gate 81 440-455                   4  
4 CASTRA(N)   camp gate 82 440-455                   2  
4 ROMA   gateway, star above 83 440-455                   4  
AE       reverse type     [end of Table 4] ID   date                 T2 V3 other


Go to a supplement listing very rare but attested types that are possibly mint errors or recording errors.

Go to the images from Table 4.

Rarity notes: Typical coins from this period are in even worse shape than those from the previous period. Most coins are unevenly struck and very crowded. Most coins are very worn. Legends are misspelled and usually mostly missing. A "full flan and VF" example would be almost unimaginable. "F with half the legend" would be excellent.

Table 4 type notes:
60  "SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory drags captive": The style is very crude compared to the otherwise similar type 39.
64  VIRTVS ROMANORVM may be spelled "VRTVS" [sic]. LRBC 175-177.
69  RIC X lists 2151 as a "[SALVS REI]PVBLICA" legend with this design. p.380. See the supplementary table.
72  "VOT PVB, camp gate" is  the most commonly offered type for Valentinian III in AE. It is like type 82, but with a different legend.
74  "VT / XXX /V in wreath" is very similar to "VT / XXX in wreath" which is "R4" (and type 4A2 in the supplement) but of uncertain existence in RIC X. The type without the terminal "V" may exist, and this may be an example, but, this piece evokes the same concerns that there may actually be a weak "V" at the end. See type 74 for further discussion of this piece.
76  "monogram of Theodosius II" has five minor monogram varieties
82  "CASTRA(N), camp gate" is like VOT PVB, type 71, but with a different legend

RIC X pages for each emperor

 



ACCG

Key. Contents of the four tables
    The rows list types, with common types and distinguishing features in bold. 

    The columns list:  AE size, description, ID number, dates, and emperors.
    Entries give each a rarity rating. 
    The "reverse type" and "ID" number both link to more information which 
includes RIC numbers and rarities by mint, and more photos.To search this page, use the "find" command (control-f), but note that legends are spelled with "V", not "U".
 



Emperors in Chronological order, including links to their type-sets.
    Go to the same list below in alphabetical order.)

   Issuer. Prominent issuers are in bold type

      ↓          (some have the type set listed, but not yet illustrated)

Valentinian I, 364-375 [Type set, illustrated]
Valens, 364-378 [Type set, illustrated]
  Procopius, 365-366 [Type set, illustrated]
Gratian, 367-383  [Type set, illustrated]
Valentinian II, 375-392  [Type set, illustrated]
Theodosius, 379-395  [Type set, illustrated]
  Aelia Flaccilla, wife of Theodosius and mother of Arcadius and Honorius [Type set, illustrated]
Magnus Maximus, 383-388 [Type set, illustrated]
  Flavius Victor, 387-388 [Type 36, his only AE type] 
  Eugenius, 392-394 [Type 12 and Type 43
Arcadius, 383-408 [Type set, illustrated]
  Eudoxia, wife of Arcadius [Type set and history, illustrated]
   (A different Eudoxia, daughter of Theodosius II and wife of Valentinian III, did not have AE coins).
Honorius, 393-423 [Type set, illustrated]
  Galla Placidia, 423-425 daughter of Theodosius, mother of V3 [Type 62, Type 65, and Type 66
  Constantine III, 407-411 [Type 3A, 4 - doubtful]
  Priscus Attalus, 409-415 [Type 50
  Maximus, 410-411 [Type 58 and Type 59
  Johannes, 423-425 [Type 55 and Type 60
Theodosius II, 402-450 [Type set, illustrated]
  Eudocia, wife of Theodosius II [Type 62
  Pulcheria, daughter of Arcadius, regent for Theodosius II [Type 62 and Type 56 (doubtful)]
Valentinian III, 425-455 [Type set, illustrated

       A link to a timeline that tells who issued coins when.
       How to distinguish the two Theodosii and three Valentinians.

 



Emperors and imperial abbreviations (in alphabetical order of abbreviation):
(The list in chronological order.)
including links to their type-sets   

Abbreviation (Indented abbreviations are of lesser issuers listed in the rightmost table column.)
    Issuer. Prominent issuers are in bold type. Issuers are listed here in chronological order. 

↓         ↓    (some have the type set listed, but not illustrated)
A Arcadius 383-408 [see Table 1 (Table 1 images), Table 2 (Table 2 images), and Table 3 (Table 3 images)] [Type set, illustrated]
AF Aelia Flaccilla wife of Theodosius and mother of Arcadius and Honorius [type 21, type 22, and type 23] (in Table 2) [Type set, illustrated]
C3 Constantine III 407-411 [Table 3A,4 - doubtful]
E Eugenius 392-394 [type 12 and type 43] (in Table 1 and Table 2)
Ec Eudocia wife of Theodisius II [type 62 (in Table 4)
Ex Eudoxia wife of Arcadius [type 56 and type 57] (in Table 3) [Type set]
(Another Eudoxia, daughter of Theodosius II and wife of Valentinian III, did not have AE coins).
FV Flavius Victor 387-388 [type 36] (in Table 2

G Gratian 367-383 [see Table 1 (Table 1 images) and Table 2 (Table 2 images)] [Type set]
H Honorius 393-423 [Type setTable 1 (Table 1 images), Table 2 (Table 2 images), Table 3 (Table 3 images)] [Type set]
J Johannes 423-425 [type 55 and type 60] (in Table 2 and Table 3)
MM Magnus Maximus 383-388 [see Table 2 (Table 2 images)] [Type set]
Mx Maximus 410-411 [type 58 and type 59] (in Table 3)  
P Procopius 365-366 [type 7 and type 8 and Type 8A] (in Table 1) [Type set]
PA Priscus Attalus 409-415 [type 50] (in Table 3)
Pc Galla Placidia 421-423 daughter of Theodosius, mother of V3 [type 62, type 65, and type 66] (in Table 4)
Pu Pulcheria daughter of Arcadius, regent for Theodosius II [type 62 (in Table 4) and type 56 (doubtful, in Table 3)] 
T Theodosius 379-395 [see Table 1 (Table 1 images) and Table 2 (Table 2 images)] [Type set]
T2 Theodosius II 402-450 [see Table 3 (Table 3 images) and Table 4 (Table 4 images)] [Type set, illustrated]

    How can we distinguish the two Theodosii and three Valentinians? See the paragraph at the end of this list. 

Vn Valens 364-378 [see Table 1 (Table 1 images)] [Type set]
V Valentinian I 364-375 [see Table 1 (Table 1 images)] [Type set]
V2 Valentinian II 375-392 [see Table 1 (Table 1 images) and Table 2 (Table 2 images)] [Type set, illustrated]
V3 Valentinian III 425-455 [see Table 4 (Table 4 images)]  [Type set, illustrated]
 

Distinguishing emperors: Valentinian I has a full, heavy face. Valentinian II is depicted as younger and thinner. Valentinian III's coins are distinguished from those of Valentinian II primarily by type and often by their remarkably crude engraving. If the flan and engraving are pretty good, it is probably not Valentinian III. Some AE pieces of Valentinian III, but not many, are distinguished by "PL" (for "Placidus") preceeding VALENTINIANVS in the obverse legend.
    Similarly, Theodosius II is distinguished from Theodosius I primarily by type, and occasionally by cruder engraving. Some of the expected indicators do not work. Coins of Theodosius I can be poorly struck and worn, and even smaller than coins of Theodosius II. Furthermore, Theodosius I can look quite young, even though he was a mature adult and Theodosius II was a child emperor. But, for example, type 55 of Theodosius II is much cruder than the similar type 12 for Theodosius I. The one indicator, not always present, that certainly indicates Theodosius II is a star behind the head or neck (although, if the legend is gone it could be Honorius). 

    A link to a timeline that tells who issued coins when.
 



Table notes. Size, types, ID, and rarity

The size is given as AE1, AE2, AE3, or AE4, as usual. AE1 is 25 mm or larger, AE2 is 21-24 mm, AE3 is 17-20 mm, and AE4 is 16 mm or smaller. (For more details and discussion, see here.) Note that in the later periods the AE3's and AE4's are smaller than in the earlier periods. In fact, in the last period an "AE3" has the size that would have been "AE4" earlier and are called AE3 just because they are not the smallest pieces of the age, and "AE4" is reserved for the smallest pieces. Types commonly called "medallions" are not listed (nor are "VOTA PVBLICA" types).

Type abbreviations:  r = right; l = left; w = with (= holding); emp = emperor; Vict = Victory; lab = labarum with chi-rho; std = seated; stg = standing; adv = advancing (Victory, usually holding wreath and palm); insc = inscribing (onto shield); gl = globe.

Type notes: The emperor is often holding a standard or labarum which is not mentioned in the abbreviated description. Sometimes the standard has little or nothing on the banner and sometimes a chi-rho or X. Figures are often holding a "Victory on globe" which is not mentioned in the abbreviated description. The precise types may be seen in the illustrations. Types commonly called "medallions" are not listed, nor are "VOTA PVBLICA" types.

More information is linked to the "reverse type" descriptions (and "ID" number). The information includes RIC numbers and rarities by mint, and more images. Here is the format of most type pages.

The ID number is not from any text. I created it, simply attempting to use chronological order or follow the order of RIC if the chronology is uncertain.

The rarity is given as C = common, S = scarce, R = rare, or 2, 3, 4, or 5 in increasing degrees of rarity.
The numbers 2, 3, 4, and 5 are taken from RIC if the type is of that degree of rarity in RIC from a single mint issue. For details of RIC's rarity ratings, click on the "reverse type" or "ID" number.  If the rarity rating is in bold, an example is illustrated on the page of images of that type.
    However, the rarity in the main tables on this page are somewhat modified to be of greater use to collectors. If a type was issued by several mints, a single, consolidated, degree of rarity is given which treats, for example, several R2's as merely R. However, in many cases I have overridden the RIC rarity with my own impression. In particular, the recent flood of coins from the Balkans has vaulted types like type 7 of Procopius from R3 to merely S. On the other hand, there are coins listed as "S" from several mints, or even "C" but from only one mint and officina, that I have listed as "R". This is likely to be in more in line with availability to collectors.


Caveats. Most of the types listed here are well-attested, but some are not. It is not always possible to know if some extremely rare type was intentional and therefore deserving of a place in a list of official types, or merely an anomaly -- perhaps even an ancient counterfeit. Some recorded types have been relegated to a table of supplemental types because they which are possibly, imitations, mint errors, or recording errors. In the final time period the workmanship was so crude that the intended spelling of some legends is uncertain. Then minor spelling variants may all be grouped under one type. For example, the legend of type 64 is usually found, as listed in Table 4, with an apparent misspelling, but this is not to say it is never spelled otherwise. 

Rarity for Collectors. If you want to collect beautiful AE coins, this is not the time period for you. In this time period, especially in the latter half, even "common" coins may be very difficult to find in pleasing condition. Some earlier types, for example 5 and 6 (GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor drags captive, and SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory left, of Valentinian and Valens), are common with full flan and high grade. However, in the period after Theodosius I almost all AE coins are poorly struck and well worn. A well-struck, full flan VF would be rare indeed (a "condition rarity"), even when excavation reports record many (mostly terrible) examples. To see RIC rarity, mint by mint, click on the reverse type description or ID number. In the above tables I have tried to strike a balance between RIC rarity and condition rarity  -- attempting to reflect what I might call "good fine condition rarity" for all those types that do not come in nice EF. 

Note:  In the tables I changed some rarity ratings to better indicate the current availability of the types. The rarity ratings were from RIC, and the great majority still are (they are in black in the main tables). But huge numbers of coins from the early part of this time period have been coming out of the Balkans, and the original rarity ratings in RIC are from 1933(!), so some changes are in order. Any rating in this color (dark red) is not the rating you would deduce from RIC, but one or more steps commoner. For example, type 1 used to be called "rare", but it is only "scarce" (if that) now. So, I have changed the label from "R" to "S" (note the dark red color). On the other hand, some types are rarer than you would deduce from RIC. Those that I have changed to rarer ratings are in this color (dark green). These ratings are based on my personal opinion. If I have not followed a type closely for a long time, I have not changed its rating because I cannot be confident I know that it should be changed.
    Bold rarity ratings denote that this site has an example illustrated.

 



FAQ about this page: What do all those abbreviations, bold terms, underlining, etc. mean?

Questions about this main page:

What is the purpose of this page?
    This page is simply a type and emperor list that indicates rarity for collectors and illustrates the types.
Does the main page list every type?
    Yes. Well, almost. It is complete for all known types that are definitely official regular currency types. However, there is a supplementary page of attested types that are very rare and possibly mint errors or recording errors. Medallions are not included.
How can I find my coin?
   You can search by reverse type for images for the type. If you know the emperor, you can use the type set. If you can read the legend, you can search for the legend (use "ctrl-F" from the top of the tables).
I want to use these ID numbers. How do I cite them?
  To refer to types using this list, cite the type number and append the imperial abbreviation. For example, type 5 of Theodosius would be "Esty type 5 for Theodosius" or "Esty 5T" or "Esty T-5."
Why are some images missing?
    I just don't have images of those types. Hopefully they will appear in future revisions of this page.
What does "RIC" mean?
    "RIC" is the abbreviation for the standard reference "Roman Imperial Coinage."  References are listed below.
How are the tables organized?
    They list types chronologically, by date of introduction of the type. There are four tables. The first two cover RIC IX, and the last two cover RIC X. The first two are divided by the death of Valens. The second two are divided by the death of Arcadius. There are type-set lists for each emperor.
In the main table, what do "C", "S", "R" and "2" mean?
    "C" means RIC rarity "C" for "common". "S" is for "scarce", "R" for "rare", and "2" through "5" means rarities "R2" through "R5". For more details about rarity, click here.
Why are some reverse descriptions and AE sizes in bold?
    Bold types are the more common types. Bold words in type descriptions emphasize distinguishing features. Bold AE size numbers indicate the size distinguishes the type from other types with similar legends.
Why are some column labels in bold?
    Emperors represented in that table are in bold. Emperors not represented are in other tables, but not that one.
Why is so much of each table empty?
    Empty columns show the type was not issued by those emperors. The horizontal of the table serves as an approximate time line -- the same for each table.
What if a type was issued in two time periods?
    This table lists each type only once -- by date of initial issue. Long-lasting types that continued to be issued into the time period of the next table (such as type 12 in Table 1) are listed only in the earlier table. The dates indicate the time span during which it was issued, and all emperors using the type will be noted in the earlier table.

Questions about the linked type pages:

What is the purpose of the type pages?
    The type pages give more images and more evidence of the rarities of the types. Occasionally some commentary is included.
The mint names are abbreviated. What are their full names?

Mint abbreviations on this page: Tr = Trier = Treveri, Lug = Lyons = Lugdunum, Ar = Arles = Arelate, Rom = Rome, Aq = Aquileia, Sis = Siscia, Th = Thessalonica, Her = Heraclea, Con = Constantinople, Nic = Nicomedia, Cyz = Cyzicus, Ant = Antioch, Ale = Alexandria, xx = uncertain.
   Arelate (Arles) was renamed Constantina in 328 in honor of Constantine II and changed back in 340 (When Constantine II was killed trying to conquer Italy), but was resumed in 353 so coins from the time period of this page often have mintmark inducing "CON" or "CONS" or "CONST" which is easily confused with Constantinople. At Constantinople the mintmark often ends with a Greek letter for the officina, whereas at Arles the mintmark often begins with a Latin letter for the officina. See RIC for details. In the 5th century the name of the mint reverts to Arelate. 

Why does it list the numbers of photos in various references, but not reproduce the photos?
    The numbers (and associated mints) tell you something of the rarity of the type. The photos are under copyright. This list is not intended to obviate the need for the basic references.
What is "Cayon"?
    It's a book. See the list of references next for all questions about cited references.
I find RIC X hard to use. How can I find an emperor's types in RIC X?
    I had to make a short list correlating emperors and pages.

Go to the Table of Contents, near the top of the page.

 



References
    For references to the history of the period, click here.
    The main scholarly numismatic references for the period are:

RIC       Roman Imperial Coinage, volumes IX, by Pierce, which covers 364-395, and
             volume X, by Kent, which covers 395-498
LRBC    Late Roman Bronze Coinage, part II, by Carson and Kent,
            which covers the whole time period, and
DO     Catalog of the Late Roman Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection, by Grierson and Mays,
            which covers from Arcadius and Honorius to 498
Hahn    Moneta Imperii Romani Byzantini, Die Ostpragung des Romischen Reiches im 5. Jahrhundret (408-491),
             by Wolfgang Hahn.

    RIC IX has extensive photographic coverage of the types, but with poor to mediocre photos. It has extensive discussion of the types and mints. RIC X has virtually complete photographic coverage (by mint, emperor, and type) with excellent photos. RIC X also has very extensive commentary. LRBC pictures one reverse of each type, but never the obverses. It is just a list by mint and time period, with no discussion.  DO (Late Roman Coins) has 37 excellent page plates with hundreds of coins photographed, and very extensive discussion of the types and reigns. Hahn lists and dates all coin types of Theodosius II, Honorius, Pulcheria, and Eudocia from each eastern mint (but not from western mints) with excellent photographs of each, sometimes picturing several examples and sometimes including enlargements. Its 46 pages of discussion are in German.

For additional scholarly references on coins of the period, and comments on what they say, see my additional references page.

Notes to RIC X.  Pages for AE types
   Eastern
Arcadius:  pages 68-72, 246-252 (includes Eastern Honorius, Theodosius II, and Eudoxia, legends p. 239)
Theodosius II:  pages 90-94, 271-277 (includes Eastern Honorius, Valentinian III, Pulcheria, Eudocia, and Placidia, legends on p. 253)
   Western
Honorius:  pages 127-128, 136-137, 322-340  (includes Western Arcadius, Theodosius II, Constantius III, and Placidia, legends on p. 317)
   Attalus:  pages 140-141, 345,     Constantine III:  pages 146, 350,     Maximus:  pages 150-151, 351
   Theodosius II  has no AD 423 sole-reign AE from the west (p. 355-358)
Johannes:  pages 158, 360-361 (includes Western Theodosius II)
Valentinian III:  pages 172-175, 375-381 (includes Western Placidia and one R4 Theodosius II, legends on p. 363)

    Three other books have some photographic coverage (but not discussion) of this material:

Cayon    For photographic coverage of the coins of the period of RIC IX, short of RIC, the best source I know of is a price guide in Spanish by Juan Cayon, Compendio de las Monedas del Imperior Romano, volume IV (Constans - 498). (By the Way, Volume III has excellent photos for the Tetrachy through Constantine II.) The given prices should be ignored, but common types may be illustrated with half a dozen examples, and all but the rarest types are illustrated. The author seems to have listed virtually every AE type in RIC IX, so, even when it has no photo, the type is usually listed.

Hunter    Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, volume V, by Anne Robertson, has 19 page plates of coins (mostly not AE) from Valentinian I to 498 (and 77 more plates from the reform of Diocletian to Valentinian, for which it is excellent for AE). It is basically a list and photos of coins in a collection, with almost no discussion, not at all like RIC or DO. Most of the common AE types are pictured, but the collection has few AE rarities. Hunter has no AE of Theodosius II or Valentinian III.

Ratto    Monnaies Byzantine, auction sale of 9 Dec. 1930 by Rodolfo Ratto (reprinted by Schulman, 1959) has mediocre photos of coins of (in this time period, only) Arcadius, Eudoxia, and Theodosius II.

Articles

J. W. E. Pearce, "AES coinage of Valentinian I: The evidence from hoards," NC 1948, 66-77. Gives hoard numbers for types 2, 4, 5 and 6, as well as the numbers he gathered for RIC IX.

John Kent, "The Coinage of Arcadius (395-406)," NC 1991, pp. 35-57 and plates 13-18.  An extensive study of the AE coinage in preparation for writing RIC X, fully illustrated.

J. P. C. (John) Kent, "The fifth century bronze coinage of Honorius in Italy and Gaul," RIN 90 (1988) pp. 281-293 (including two page plates). A study of the AE of Honorius in preparation for writing RIC X, with some corrections of RIC IX.
 


You may e-mail me at:   to reach Esty
Comments and corrections, or simply ancient-coin chat, are very welcome. You can help me by letting me know about broken links, typos, errors, etc.

Go to the Table of Contents of this page, near the top of the page.

Go to the Table of Contents of this whole educational site.