Turkoman Figural Bronze Coins:
A Supplement to Spengler and Sayles


Turkoman figural bronze coins were issued before and after 1200 AD--during the Crusades--in ancient Anatolia (modern Asian Turkey) and Syria (map). Turkoman (or Turkmen) is a generic term for Turkic tribes that were spread over much of the Middle East and Central Asia. The purpose of this web page is to list, illustrate, and provide ID numbers for the Turkoman figural bronze types that are not in the standard volumes by Spengler and Sayles (S/S). 

Most early Islamic coins have designs that consist entirely of legends in Arabic without images. Turkoman figural bronze coins are different because they have images of humans and animals.

Coin to the right:  Ayyubid ruler Al Awhad Ayyub Najm al-Din Ayyub, AD 1200-1210, with a facing bust, Ayyubid type 6 below. 26 mm and 8.56 grams. 

All the figural bronzes of the Artuqids (a.k.a. Artukids or Urtukis) and Zengids (a.k.a. Zangids) are cataloged in the two volumes by Spengler and Sayles (S/S). Those are not discussed here. This site lists only the figural types that would have been in S/S volume 3, had it appeared. Types that consist entirely of legends are omitted. Except for the Ayyubids, who were of Kurdish origin, all the dynasties with coins on this page traced their origin to Turkmen. However, they were no longer nomadic; nomads do not mint coins. 


This page lists figural types of the 
Ayyubids (here),
Danishmendids (here), 
Seljuqs of Rûm (here), and minor dynasties including the
Begteginids, Begtimurids, Salduqids, and Menkujakids (here).

A timeline of events is below with a map of the region in 1200. References and acknowledgements are at the end

What's new?  2021, August 13:  SSS Sel 26 with a lion right, an anonymous type of the Seljuqs of Syria. 

Key

ID numberDiameter in mm.
ID number in the form "SSS <dynasty> type number"
"SSS" for "Spengler and Sayles Supplement"
e.g.  "SSS Ay-6" for type 6 of the Ayyubid dynasty

   Image  [Larger coins have larger images, but not in proportion.]
 

Ruler 
[possible alternative spelling]
AH dates of the reign
AD dates

obverse description
reverse description

 

References
 

image source


Note. Arabic has some sounds not found in English. Because English does not have letters for those sounds, many names in Arabic have been spelled more than one way in English. Sometimes when major references use different spellings, I have included both.
  Also, names with full titulature are often long with numerous components, for example "Al-Ashraf Muzaffar al-Din Abu al-Fath Musa ibn al-A'Dil." Naturally we want to shorten this, but which components should be retained? I follow Album's Checklist. This name is rendered "al Ashraf Musa." 

 



Ayyubids (Saladin and his successors) AH 564-c. 658, AD 1169-c.1260. The types are in the order of Album's Checklist. An illustrated reference is The Coinage of the Ayyūbids by Paul Balog. Types that are not figural are omitted. 
 

Ayyubids
SSS Ay-1.  34-32 mm.


 
Sultanate of Egypt, Nisibin mint

al-Nasir I Salah al-Din Yusuf (Saladin)
AH 564-589
AD 1169-1193

Facing bust, female, with three-pointed crenelated crown, legend around, very much like the reverse of an Artuqid prototype, S/S 29, but the head is slightly larger and rounder and the other side is completely different. 

4-line legend in square
Album 791.1 "R"
Balog 172-174, IX "578"
Whelan type A, 261-2

Image courtesy of CNG 94 lot 1597

SSS Ay-2. 30-27 mm.

 

Sultanate of Egypt

al-Nasir I Salah al-Din Yusuf (Saladin)

AH 564-589
AD 1169-1193

lion seated left in circle, legend around
"Constellation of the lion"

4-line legend in circle, legend around
Album 791.3 "S"
Balog 177, IX and X.
Whelan type II, 256-7
Mitchner 814


Image courtesy of CNG 433 lot 519
SSS Ay-3. 28 mm.

 
Sultanate of Egypt

al-Nasir I Salah al-Din Yusuf (Saladin)

AH 564-589
AD 1169-1193


Figure seated cross-legged, with chair back, holding orb, legend around

3-line legend, legend around
Album 791.4 "S" date "586"
791.5 is similar but lighter.
Balog 182, X.
Mitchner 815.

Image courtesy of PC 1
SSS Ay-4. 30 mm. 


 
Sultanate of Egypt, Cairo
Mint of Mayafariqin, date AH591


Al-'Adil I 
(al-'Adil Abu Bakr I) 

AH 589-596
AD 1193-1200



Bust, half-length, facing, headdress, cloak with three folds, looks like a tie, in circle, legend around
[This type is extremely similar to SSS Ay 6 below]

5-line legend plus four outside

 
Album 809 "C"
Balog 338
Whelan Type I, 264-5
"591-608"
Mitchner 824

Image courtesy of CNG 68 lot 1656

 
SSS Ay-5. 24 mm.


 
Principality of Hamah
Harran mint

Al-Mansur Muhammad I
AH 587-617
AD 1191-1220

Seated figure, cross-legged, holding crescent, in circle, legend around

3-line legend in square 
(Name and title of Saladin)
Album 851 "RR"
Balog 832

Image courtesy of CNG 347 lot 615
SSS Ay-6. 26 mm. 

Mesopotamian Ayyubids
(Principality in the Jazirah)
Mint of Mayafariqin


Al Awhad Ayyub (Najm al-Din)
AH 596-607
AD 1200-1210

Bust, half-length, facing, headdress, cloak with three folds
looks like a tie, in circle, legend around
[This type is extremely similar to SSS Ay 4 above]

5-line legend plus four outside

Album 856.1 "C"
Balog 843
Mitchner 864, 865


Image courtesy of PC 1

SSS Ay-7. 28 mm.
Mayafariqin mint type
Mesopotamian Ayyubids

Al Awhad Ayyub (Najm al-Din)
AH 596-607
AD 1200-1210

Bust, half-length, facing, cloak with three folds gathered at the center with the left hand.

Star of David (a.k.a. hexagram), legend inside and outside

Album 856.2 "C"
Balog 845
Struck "605"
Wilkes 941

Image courtesy of PC 1

 

SSS Ay-8. 30 mm.
Mesopotamia, Mayafariqin mint

Al Ashraf Musa
(Muzaffer al-din, ibn Al'Abdil)


AH 607-617
AD 1210-1220

Turbaned prince, seated facing, right leg drawn up, orb in right hand, in circle, legend around

Triangular shield (ornamented triangle) with convex side-centers, legends within and around


 
Album 859.1 "C"
Balog 849-852, XLIIf
Struck "612"
Mitchner 867-8.

Image courtesy of PC 1


 
SSS Ay-9. 25 mm. 

 
Mesopotamia, Branch at Sinjar

Al Ashraf Musa
(Muzaffer al-din, ibn Al'Abdil)

AH 607-617
AD 1210-1220

Turbaned prince, seated facing with legs drawn up, orb in left (sometimes right) hand, in circle, legend around
[The obverse figure resembles the figure on the previous type, but the coin is smaller and the reverse has no triangle.]
4-line legend, more outside

Album 859.2
Balog 853-4, XLIII
Whelan Type II, 275-6

Image courtesy of PC 1

 



Danishmendids. The types are in the order of Album's Checklist. An illustrated reference is the article by Whelan. A timeline and map are below. Types that are not figural are omitted. 

Danishmendid
SSS Dan-1. 

Amīr Ghāzī
AH 497-528
AD1104-1134

Bust of Christ
Greek inscription

Album 1237 "RRR"

Note: This coin is much earlier than other figural types.

Image courtesy of Album 37, lot 527

 
SSS Dan-2.  27 mm.
Dhu'l Qarnayn
(Dhu'l Qarnayn b. 'Ayn al-Dawla)
AH 547 - 557
AD 1152 - 1162

Bi-lingual
Male bust right in circle, Greek legend around

4-line Arabic legend in circle, odd legend around
Album 1240 "RR"
Whelan Type A.
Malatya mint
Wilkes 1307

Image courtesy of CNG 298, lot 434
SSS Dan-3. 33 mm.


 

Nasir al-Din Muhammad
(Nasir al-Din Muhammad b. Dhu'l-Qarnayn)
AH 557 - 565; 570-573
AD 1162 - 1170; 1175 - 1178

Two standing figures: Virgin crowning the emperor

4-line legend

 

Album 1241.1 "R"
Whelan Type A, 23-4; CMM 1953 var. (rev. legend);
Wilkes 1308

Image courtesy of CNG 81, lot 1232

SSS Dan-4. 28 mm. 

Nasir al-Din Muhammad b. Dhu'l-Qarnayn
AH 557 - 565; 570-573
AD 1162 - 1170; 1175 - 1178

Horseman riding right slaying dragon

3-line legend

 

 

Album 1241.2 "RR"
Wilkes 1309 (no photo)


Image courtesy of the ANS
1917.215.840




 
SSS Dan-5. 30 mm.


 

Fakhr al-Din Qasim b. Dhu'l-Qarnayn
AH 565 - 567
AD 1170 - 1172

Lion sitting, right forepaw raised, nearly facing (sejant)

4-line legend in circle


 

Album 1242 "RR"
Wilkes 1311 (no photo)

Image courtesy of Künker 204, lot 1042

SSS Dan-6.  26 mm.

 

'Imad al-Din Dhu'l-Nun
(b. al-Malik Muḥammad)
at Kayseri
AH 536-570
AD 1142-1175
 

Man riding lion right, brandishing sword, legend around

4-line legend in circle, legend around

Album 1243 "R"

Wilkes 1302

Image courtesy of CNG 78, lot 1931

SSS Dan-7.  31 mm. 

Nizam al-Din Yaghi Basan b. Amir Ghazi
AH 536 - 559
AD 1142 - 1164

Male diademed bust right in circle, legend around

Legend in three lines

Album 1245 "R"
Whelen plate 17.11
(9 specimens)
Wilkes 1305

Image courtesy of PC 1
SSS Dan-8.  29-34 mm.

 

Shams al-Din Isma'il b. Ibrahim
AH 559 - 567
AD 1164 - 1172

Seated figure in circle, legend around

3-line legend 

 

Album 1247 "RR"
Whelan 9-11;
CMM -;

Image courtesy of CNG 78, lot 1930

 

Minor Turkish Dynasties: Begteginid, Begtimurid, Salduqid (Saltuqid), and Menkujakid. The entries have been extracted from of the Checklist by Stephen Album. A timeline and map is below. Types that are not figural are omitted. 

Minor Dynasties
Begteginid, Begtimurid, Salduqid, and Menkujakid
SSS Begteginid-1.  30 mm.

Begteginid (at Irbil)

Muzaffar al-Din Kokburi [Gokburi, Gokbori]
AH 563-630
AD 1168-1233

Enthroned facing figure

3-line legend in square legend outside
Album 1888.1
Whelan Type III, 251 and 253; CMM 826-36;

Image courtesy of CNG 97, lot 901

 
SSS Begteginid-2.  26 mm. 

Begteginid (at Irbil)

Muzaffar al-Din Kokburi [Gokburi, Gokbori]
AH 563-630
AD 1168-1233

Bust left with curly hair

3-line legend in beaded circle, legend around

Album 1888.2  "RR"

Image courtesy of Stephen Album

SSS Begteginid-3.  28 mm. 


 
Begteginid (at Irbil)

Muzaffar al-Din Kokburi [Gokburi, Gokbori]
AH 563-630
AD 1168-1233

Lion-rider left (or right)
[The lion-rider is similar to S/S 39, but the reverse of S/S 39 has 3 lines and legend around.]

Album 1888.3  "R"
Wilkes 1289
Mitchner 1146-7

Image courtesy of Album 24 lot 446.

SSS Begteginid-4.  22 mm.

Begteginid (at Irbil)

Muzaffar al-Din Kokburi [Gokburi, Gokbori] ibn Ali/Saladin
AH 563-630
AD 1168-1233

Seated figure in niche

Legend in hexagram 

Album 1888.4  "R"
Wilkes 1290

Image courtesy of the ANS, 1917.215.944
SSS Begtimurid-1.  24 mm. 


 
Begtimurid (at Ahlat)

Sayf al-Din Begtimur
AH 579-589
AD 1183-1193

Cow and calf 

 


Album 1889 "R"
Mitchner 1148

Image courtesy of Album 19, lot 665

 

SSS Sal-1.


 
Salduqid (at Erzurum)

Diyā’ al-Dīn Ghāzī,
AH  510-526
AD 1116-1132

The Virgin with the Christ-Child
in her lap. (A Byzantine-inspired type)

Short legend in small circle, legend around

 
Album A1890 "RRR"

Image courtesy of Album 34, lot 859

 
SSS Sal-2. 
Salduqid (at Erzurum)

Diyā’ al-Dīn Ghāzī,
AH  510-526
AD 1116-1132

St. George slaying the dragon, crudely engraved.

Short legend in small circle, legend around
Album C1890 "RRR"

Image courtesy of Album 30, lot 564
SSS Sal-3. 
Salduqid (at Erzurum)

Diyā’ al-Dīn Ghāzī,
AH  510-526
AD 1116-1132

King standing (or enthroned?), holding spear instead of long cross.

Short legend in small circle, legend around

Album D1890 "RRR"

Image courtesy of Album 34, lot 860
SSS Sal-4.  23 mm.


 

Salduqid (at Erzurum)

Naṣīr al-Dawla Ghāzī,
AH c. 526-540
AD c.1132-1145

Standing figure holding staff and diadem, with cornucopiae in background.

2-line legend in circle, legend around

Album B1890 "RR"

Image courtesy of Album 37, lot 813


 

SSS Sal-5.  22 mm.


 

Salduqid (at Erzurum)

'Izz al-Din Salduq b. 'Ali
AH 523-563
AD 1129-1168

Two standing figures with cross on steps between them

5-line legend


Album 1890 "R"
Mitchner 1013

Image courtesy of Album 32, lot 556
SSS Sal-6.


 
Salduqid (at Erzurum)

'Izz al-Din Salduq b. 'Ali
AH 523-563
AD 1129-1168

Facing half bust, nimbate, holding sword & shield [A Byzantine-inspired type]

‘izz al-dīn in central circle
Album 1890B "RRR"

Image courtesy of Album 39, lot 2571
SSS Sal-7.  


 
Salduqid (at Erzurum)

Muhammad b. Saluq
(Nāṣir al-Dīn, Qizil Arslān)


AH 563-587
AD 1168-1191

Mounted archer shooting arrow at animal behind
3-line legend in circle, legend around 


Album 1891 "R"
Mitchner 1014


Image courtesy of Album 32, lot 558

SSS Men-1.  20 mm ?


 
Menkujakid (at Erzincan)

Fakhr al-Din Bahramshah
AH c. 563-622
AD c. 1167-1225

Facing half-length Byzantine-style bust 

4-line legend
Album 1892.1 "RR"

Image courtesy of Album 38, lot 502

 
SSS Men-2.  20 mm.
 
Menkujakid (at Erzincan)

Fakhr al-Din Bahramshah
AH c. 563-622
AD c. 1167-1225

Head left in hexagon, legend around
3-line legend in square

Album 1892.3 "R"
Wilkes 1296

Image courtesy of PC 1

 

 

 


Seljuqs of Rûm.  The entries are in the order of Album's Checklist.  Illustrated references are A Survery of the Coinage of the Seljuqs of Rome by Broome and Novak and The Coins of Anatolian Seljuqs by İzmirlier and Paraları. A timeline and map are below. Types that are not figural are omitted. 

Notes for collectors. Many Seljuq types are hard to tell apart. Among the 25 "types" below, most are 
1)  horseman galloping right (occasionally left) with various weapons. 
    Others have a
2)  Byzantine-emperor-style obverse (#1, #9, #10, #25) or
3)  a facing seated-figure (#3, #7, #15, #16).
     The horseman design is by far the most common. It comes in various sizes from very large (35 mm) to small (18 mm) and it comes with reverse legends with various numbers of lines including the name of the ruler (but I do not read Arabic--I rely on the classifications of Album and Broome). Types 5 and 14 have the horseman spearing an animal, which are somewhat different. I have chosen to treat similar varieties as belonging to one type if the varieties in Broome are of the same ruler, size, and general figural design, even if they have different dates or are from different mints, or have small variations in the pose or weaponry of the horseman. 
    Often the reverse legend has a few long main lines with very short lines above and below (sometimes up and down the sides, too, e.g SSS Sel-12.) Do we count the very short lines in the number of lines, or just the longer lines? I have chosen to say, for example, "3-line legend" even if there really are two short additional lines above and below the main three.   
  You may need to use the reverse legends (which are not given here) to distinguish similar types and that may require employing reference works with more illustrations than are given here. 
  Steve Album has been a great help with these Seljuq types. He patiently answered many questions, helped me decide what to include as types, and provided many of the images. 

 

Seljuqs of Rûm
SSS Sel-1.  21 mm.

 

Mas'ud I
(Rukn al-din Mas'ud I b. Qilich Arslan)
AH 510-551
AD 1116-1156

Facing half-length figure of Byzantine emperor, holding globus cruciger right or left  
Arabic 4-line legend 
[The first Seljuk type. Obverses resemble tetartera of Alexius I (1081-1118) or  Manuel I (1143-1180)]

Album 1192 "R"
Broome 1
Wilkes 1318

 

Image courtesy of PC 1

SSS Sel-2.  21-18 mm. 

Qilich Arslan II (at Sivas)

AH 551-588
AD 1156-1192

horsemen galloping right (sometimes to the left) with leveled lance
4-line legend

Album 1194.1 "C"
Broome 21
"581"

Image courtesy of PC 1
SSS Sel-3.  20 mm.
 
 
Qilij Arslan II
AH 551-588
AD 1156-1192

enthroned figure facing 
Album 1194.2 "R"

Image courtesy of Roma Numismatics 81, lot 1752.
SSS Sel-4.  (Small) 

 

Malikshah II
(Qutb ad-din Malikshah II b. Qilij Arslan II) (Abū’l-Fath)
(at Sivas and Aksaray)

AH 499
AD 1105

Horseman right, being crowned by angle from behind
3-line legend

Album 1195 "RR"-
Broome --

Image courtesy of Album, 33, lot 597
SSS Sel-5.  32-27 mm. 
Malik Qaysarshah
(Qaysarshah b. Qilij Arslan II)
AH 580s?
AD 1180s?
facing horseman right with lance, spearing coiled dragon [very weak on this example]

[Somewhat resembles #14 below]
3-line legend

 
Album 1196 "RR"
Broome 38A

Image courtesy of Album Horizon Auction 1, lot 432

 
SSS Sel-6.  25 mm.

 
Tughril [Toghril]
(Tughril b. Qilij Arslan II) at Ezurum
AH c. 580s - 618
AD c. 1180s - 1221

Horseman to right with mace over right shoulder
4-line legend

Album 1199.1 "R"
Broome 107

 

Image courtesy of Album 31 lot 612

SSS Sel-7.  24 mm.

 
Jahanshah b. Tughril
(Rukn al-Din Jahanshah b. Toghril) 
at Erzurum
AH 620s
AD 1220s

Seated figure, cross-legged, on high-backed throne with scooped back
3-line legend
Album 1200 "RR"
Broome 109

Photo courtesy of Album 37 lot 2268
SSS Sel-8.  20 mm.

 
Kay Khusraw I, first reign
(Ghiyath al-din Kay Khusraw I b. Qilich Arslan)
AH 588-593
AD 1192-1197

Horseman right, brandishing sword
4-line legend
Album 1202 "C"
Broome 29
Wilkes 1322 (no photo)

Image courtesy of Album 22, lot 409
SSS Sel-9.   (Small)
Kay Khusraw I, first reign
(Ghiyath al-din Kay Khusraw I b. Qilich Arslan)
AH 588-592  
AD 1192-1196

Half-bust facing

Album 1203 "RR"
Broome --
Wilkes 1323 (no photo)

Image courtesy of Album 37, lot 2265

 

SSS Sel-10.  (Small)

Full figure facing, seated on Byzantine throne. [No photo]
Kay Khusraw I, first reign
(Ghiyath al-din Kay Khusraw I b. Qilich Arslan)
AH 588-592  
AD 1192-1196

Full figure facing, seated on Byzantine-style throne
Album 1203A "RR"
SSS Sel-11.  30-27 mm. 

 
Sulaymān II [Suleyman II, Suleiman] 
(Rukn ad-Din Sulayman II b. Qilich Arslan), as malik at Tokat, 
AH 582-595
AD 1186-1199


Horseman galloping right with mace over shoulder.

3-line legend, no legend around.

Album 1205.1 "S"
Broome 39B

Image courtesy of Roma Numismatics 45, lot 820. 

SSS Sel-12.  35-25 mm. (Large)
Sulayman II [Suleyman II, Suleiman] as Sultan
(Rukn ad-Din Sulayman II b. Qilich Arslan)
AH 593-600
AD 1196-1204

Horseman nimbate, galloping right with mace over shoulder.

3-line legend, legend around

 
Album 1205.2 "C", date "595"
Broome 57-61

Broome 62 is Wilkes 1327

Image courtesy of PC 1.
SSS Sel-13.  23-18 mm.

 
Kay Khusraw I, second reign 

AH 600-607
AD 1204-1210

Horseman right (sometimes left), lance or mace or sword diagonally over left shoulder, sometimes some legend in upper fields

4- or 5-line legend
Album 1207
Broome 85, 92 (left), 93, 95, 97
(24 photos)
Wilkes -- (1322 is similar courtesy of the first reign)



Image courtesy of PC 1.
SSS Sel-14.  31-28 mm. 


 

Malik Kay Qubadh b. Kay Khusraw
[Kayqubad I] as malik of Tokat.
AH 607-610
AD 1210-1213

Horseman right, spearing animal with long tail (lion or panther)    [Sometimes "St. George slaying a panther"] 
3-line legend
[The large size and horseman resemble #5 above, but the animal is different]. 

Album 1213A "RRR"
Broome 99
Wilkes 1332

Note: The old Album 1210 is now 1231G attributed to Kaykā’ūs II, 2nd sole reign.

Image courtesy of Album 33, lot 603.
SSS Sel-15.  (Small)

        King seated on throne [No photo]
The three brothers (Kaykā’ūs II, Qilij Arslān IV & ‘Alā al-Dīn Kayqubād II),
AH 647-657
AD 1249-1259

King seated on throne, short inscription
Album 1228A "RRR"
Izmirlier-606/607
SSS Sel-16.  19 mm.


 
Kayka'us II, 2nd reign, 1257-1261

Enthroned emperor

3-line legend 
Album 1231G "R"
[Formerly Album 1210]
Izmirlier 1392

Image courtesy of PC 1.

 
SSS Sel-17.  (Small)
Note: Types 17-23 are of Mas'ud II who apparently issued several rare figural types which are only recently becoming known. There may well be other rare types not in this table. 


 
Mas'ud II
(b. Kaykā’ūs, [Ghyias] Ghiyath al-Dīn Abū’l-Fath)

AH 679-697
AD 1280-1298
First reign, 1280-1284

Horseman right holding a bow and firing an arrow

Legend in hexagon.
Album A1235 "RRR"

Image courtesy of Album 37, lot 2281.
Izmirlier 1392

 

SSS Sel-18. 23 mm.

     Lion right, sun above
   /legend in hexagon or circle  [Photo link]


https://www.zeno.ru/showphoto.php?photo=272523

 

Mas'ud II
(b. Kaykā’ūs, [Ghyias] Ghiyath al-Dīn Abū’l-Fath)

AH 679-697
AD 1280-1298
First reign, 1280-1284

Lion (right, sometimes left), sun above
Reverse legend in circle or hexagon
Album A1235 
Rare
Izmirlier 1388-1389

 
SSS Sel-19. 22 mm.

      Human face  [Photo link]

https://www.zeno.ru/showphoto.php?photo=251793
Mas'ud II
(b. Kaykā’ūs, [Ghyias] Ghiyath al-Dīn Abū’l-Fath)

AH 679-697
AD 1280-1298
First reign, 1280-1284, at Sivas

Human face

 
Album A1235
Very rare
Izmirlier 1384-1387
SSS Sel-20. 20 mm.

          Sun face  [Photo link]

https://www.zeno.ru/showphoto.php?photo=251792
Mas'ud II
(b. Kaykā’ūs, [Ghyias] Ghiyath al-Dīn Abū’l-Fath)

AH 679-697
AD 1280-1298
First reign, 1280-1284, at Sivas

Sun face

 
Album A1235
Very rare
Izmirlier 
SSS Sel-21. 17 mm. (Small)
      Bird (duck?) right   [Photo link]

https://www.zeno.ru/showphoto.php?photo=252341
Mas'ud II
(b. Kaykā’ūs, [Ghyias] Ghiyath al-Dīn Abū’l-Fath)

AH 679-697
AD 1280-1298
First reign, 1280-1284, at Sivas

Bird right

 
Album A1235
Very rare
Izmirlier 1391
SSS Sel-22.
      Double-headed eagle  [No photo]
Mas'ud II
(b. Kaykā’ūs, [Ghyias] Ghiyath al-Dīn Abū’l-Fath)

AH 679-697
AD 1280-1298
First reign, 1280-1284, at Sivas

Double-headed eagle

 
Album A1235
Very rare
Izmirlier 1393-1394
SSS Sel-23.
        Rabbit [No photo]
Mas'ud II
(b. Kaykā’ūs, [Ghyias] Ghiyath al-Dīn Abū’l-Fath)

AH 679-697
AD 1280-1298
First reign, 1280-1284, at Sivas

Rabbit

 
Album A1235
Very rare

 
SSS Sel 24.  22-20 mm. (Small)

     Horseman left. [No photo]
Uncertain.
"The ruler in the margin is probably the Western Seljuq Tughril III b. Arslan (AH 571-590), and the word in the center is uncertain, probably not Sulayman, possibly a crude version of Salduq ( سلدق ), perhaps a reference to Muhammad b. Salduq (563-587)." [Album]

Horseman galloping left, cross or battleax over shoulder
1-line legend in small circle, legend around
Broome 39A, but probably not Rûm Seljuq, rather Western Seljuq, according to Steve Album.
No Album number. It is only tentatively attributed.
SSS Sel-25.

Standing figure, hatted, raising both arms in prayer, without cross, labarum & globus cruciger / same, but with star left & right of head, anepigraphic

"Although clearly a coin of Byzantine style, the lack of any Christian motifs and the position of the praying figure strongly suggest a Muslim origin, and the most likely might be the early Seljuqs of Rum, up to and including Mas'ud I (1116-1156), whose epigraphic issue retains the normal Christian figures (A-1192)."  [Album 20, lot 291]

 
Album -- 
Probably unpublished
Very rare

Image courtesy of Album 20, lot 391.



 
SSS Sel-26.  23 mm. 3.82 grams.

Seljuqs of Syria
Anonyous
c. AH 480-AH 510/1117 when the Burids took over.
Struck at Antakiya (Antioch) 

 

Lion right
Legend


 

Album 779
notes there are many figural varieties (lion [Zeno 119566, 192296], elephant [Zeno 267847], etc.) but very few publications about them.

Note to the Seljuq table. Types 17-23 are of Mas'ud II who apparently issued several rare figural types which are only recently becoming known. Type 26 is representative of barely known anonymous types from Syria. There may well be other rare types not in this table.  Contact me if you identify any. 

Glossary.
"Malik" is a title meaning "king".  A rank below "Sultan." 
"b." = "bin" or "ibn" means "son of"
"al-Din" means "of the faith/religion" as in "Sword of the Faith"

"adil"  means "just"  (as in "the just one")
"muzaffar"  means "victorious"
"ghazi" means "one who fights against infidels"
"Nasir" means "defender" 


 



Timeline. Map of the region in 1200 (Map from EurAtlas) (Places in italics are located on the map.)

1071  The battle of Manzikert (in eastern Turkey). The Seljuqs (Seljuks) defeated the Byzantines under emperor Romanus IV (1068-1071) and captured most of Anatolia (modern Asian Turkey). The Byzantine loss of Asia allowed Turkomans to form some regional dynasties. 
1071-1202 Salduqids (Saltukids) at Erzurum in northeast Turkey.
1071-1284 dates of issue of figural bronzes of the Seljuqs of Rûm. (Rûm was the Arabic/Turkish word for Rome. Anatolia was Rome that is, the land of the Eastern Roman Empire.) The Seljuqs fought against the crusaders of the First Crusade.
1081-1118 Alexius I Comnenus, Byzantine emperor during the First Crusade.
1086-1178 Danishmendids. A dynasty established in north-central Anatolia (around Amasya [in the north of the gray area]) after civil wars of the Seljuks upon the death of the Sultan Suleyman I of Rûm in 1086.
1096  First Crusade called.
1099  Jerusalem captured.
1118-1143  John II Comnenus, Byzantine emperor.
1143-1180 Manuel I, Comnenus, Byzantine emperor.
1144-1174 reign of Fakhr al-Din Qara Arslan, the first Urtuqid (or Artuqid) to issue figural bronze, at Hasankeyf [Hisn Kayfa]. Later Urtuqids issued them at Mardin. 
1167-1225 dates of issue of figural bronzes of the Menkujakids (founded 1071 after the Battle of Manzikert) [a.k.a. Mengüjek] at Erzincan.
1168-1223 Begteginids, Muzaffar al-Din Kokburi. Figural bronzes at Irbil (Tiny letters, right center, near Mosul).
1180-1193 reign of 'Izz al-Din Mas'ud I, the first Zengid to issue figural bronzes, at Mosul. Later Zengid types were issued at Damascus [Dimashq], Aleppo, Nisibin, Sinjar [near Aleppo], Mosul (al-Mawsil), and al-Jazira.
1183-1193 Begtimurid, Sayf al-Din Begtimur, at Ahlat (near Manzikert).
1169-c.1260 Ayyubid dynasty, founded by Saladin (1169-1193) (including the green region of Egypt over through much of the darker green region of Syria and Iraq).
1169-1193 Saladin
1187-1199  Richard the Lionheart, Crusader of the Third Crusade. He was in the Holy Land fighting against Saladin, 1191-1192.
1195-1203 Alexius III, Angelus-Comnenus, Byzantine emperor when Constantinople (upper left) fell to the Fourth Crusade.
1196-1204 Sulayman II, Seljuq ruler of Rûm.
1204  Constantinople captured by the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade.
1204-1254 Constantinople occupied by the Latins.
1261  Constantinople restored to Byzantine control under Michael VIII. 
1280-1298  Mas'ud II, the last Seljuq to issue figural bronze coins.
1291  Acre [Akko] fell (a coastal city north of Jerusalem, in the orange region). It was the last city held by the Crusaders in the Holy Land. There were no further crusades to retake Jerusalem. 



Comment.  I am far from an expert on Turkoman and other bronze figural types. I wrote this page because there is a need for a reference for the figural types not in the two volumes by Spengler and Sayles and no one else had already isolated all those types in one place. Besides, it is fun to study a subject and try to organize it for others to use and enjoy. I expect there are errors and omissions. I solicit suggestions and especially corrections. Contact me at .

Acknowledgement. Steve Album was very helpful in numerous ways. He sent me his fourth edition Checklist manuscript, provided many of the images, and in numerous emails he helped me identify types to include and answered many questions. Thank you very much, Steve!
   Errors on this page, and I expect there are some, are, of course, mine alone.  

 


References.

Album, Stephen. A Checklist of Islamic Coins, Fourth edition manuscript. 2021. This is a [very nearly] complete list of Islamic coin types (about 4000), without photos. This is the primary source I used.


Balog, Paul. The Coinage of the Ayyūbids, Royal Numismatic Society Special Publication Number 12, 1980. Hardcover. 334 pages and 50 plates.

Broome, Michael. A Survey of the Coinage of the Seljuqs of Rom, edited and prepared for publication by Vlastimil Novak. RNS Special Publication No. 48, 2011. [A large hardcover book, 400 pages and 62 plates.]

Edhan, I. Ghalib. Catalogue des Monnies Turcomanes du Musee Imperial Ottoman. (In French) Forni reprint, 1965, of an 1874 original. 8 pages plates of excellent examples. [Adds almost nothing. Maybe it would if you read Arabic.]

İzmirlier, Yılmaz, Anadolu Selçuklu Paraları. The Coins of Anatolian Seljuqs. Istanbul 2009 (in Turkish & English). Album writes, "Now the standard catalog of Rûm Seljuk coinage, with more than 1550 coins beautifully illustrated and described with remarkable accuracy, but the reader must devote a few minutes to create his own table of contents."

Mitchner, Michael. The World of Islam. HC. 1977. 4000 Islamic coins identified and illustrated in B&W photographs. Short paragraphs about each dynasty. Some scholars claim it has many errors, but I am not in a position to judge it and it does have very many photos. 


Plant, Richard. Arabic Coins and How to Read Them. 1973. [This is not a list of types, rather lessons about how Arabic is used on coins. I used it very little for this site.]

Poole, Stanley Lane. Coins of the Urtuki Turkumans (Foes of the Crusaders). 1875. Undated reprint. 48 B&W images, some are excellent line-drawings, on six pages of plates. [Superseded by Spengler and Salyes, volume 1.]

Sayles, Wayne, and William Spengler. Afew unpublished notes provided to me by Wayne Sayles which were assembled in preparation for S/S volume 3. Volume 3 did not appear because of the illness and death of Spengler.

Spengler, William and Wayne Sayles, Turkoman Figural Bronze Coins and their Iconography, volume 1 (The Artuquids). 1992. Types 1-58.
Spengler, William and Wayne Sayles, Turkoman Figural Bronze Coins and their Iconography, volume 2 (The Zengids). 1996.  Types 59-89. 

Whelan, Estelle, "A contribution to Danismendid history: The figural copper coins" ANSMN 25, pages 133-136 and plates 16-17.

Whelan, Estelle,  The Public Figure: Political Iconography in Medieval Mesopotamia, 2006. [A reference I have not seen.]

Wilkes, Tim. Islamic Coins, Volume 1: The Mediaeval Period. 2015. [An attractive list, illustrated in color, of Islamic coins, with no discussion.]


Image sources.  The images are from of the following sources. Whenever I wanted to use a digital image that I found on the web, I asked for permission to use it on this page. The ANS and each dealer gave me written permission, for which I am thankful. 

ANS = American Numismatic Society, Islamic Coins. http://numismatics.org/search/department/Islamic   


CNG = Classical Numismatic Group, LLC.  https://cngcoins.com/   

Künker = Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG, Osnabrück, https://www.kuenker.de/en, with owner of the coin images 
Lübke & Wiedemann KG, Leonberg. 

PC1 = Private collection 1


Roma Numismatics Ltd. www.RomaNumismatics.com  

Stephen Album Rare Coins. http://db.stevealbum.com/php/home.php   

The "Oriental Coins Database" https://www.zeno.ru/  


 


Go to the Table of Contents of this entire educational site.