Constantius, western Augustus         Galerius, eastern Augustus
       Severus II, western Caesar     Maximinus II, eastern Caesar
                                                 The Second Tetrarchy
                                              (To go to those coins, click on the images)

Roman Coins of the Second Tetrarchy, 305-306 CE


The Second Tetrarchy: History. The Augusti (emperors) of the First Tetrarchy, Diocletian and Maximian, retired on May 1, 305. The Caesars Constantius and Galerius of the First Tetrarchy became the new Augusti and the title on their coins changed from Caesar to Augustus. New Caesars, Severus II and Maximinus II, were appointed, which began the "Second Tetrarchy" ("four rulers").  It ended with the death of Constantius in July 306. The Second Tetrarchy is defined by the reign of Constantius as Augustus. 

         The "Second Tetrarchy," May 1, 305 - July 306:
•  Augusti:  Constantius (in the west) and Galerius (in the east) 
•  Casears:  Severus II (in the west) and Maximinus II (in the east)  
•  Diocletian and Maximian retired "senior" Augusti

   Coins were issued for all six rulers. The coins for the retired augusti are discussed at the page "Abdication coins of Roman emperors Diocletian and Maximian." (Here is a page on coins of the First Tetrarchy.) 

What's new?  2020, March 20: Galerius HERCVLI VICTORI.  

The Second Tetrarchy: Coins.  The reign of Constantius as Augustus defines the Second Tetrarchy. His three co-rulers outlived him and after his death the complications introduced by the elevation of his son Constantine in July, and the usurpation of Maximian's son Maxentius in October ended the tetrarchal system.

Denominations issued include the:
•   follis, by far the most common denomination (below)
•   post-reform radiate, only at Alexandria and rare (below)
•   quarter-follis, only at Siscia (below and on its own page)
•   rare so-called "fractions" mostly from Trier, but a few from Rome (below and on their own page)
•   silver argenteus, rare and soon to be discontinued  (below and on its own page
•   gold aureus, rare and very expensive (Gold will not be discussed further on this page)

Sections below:
•  The next coins on this page are the new types of folles.
•  Then there is a short survey of the other denominations (with links to pages about them).
•  Then the types of folles continued from the First Tetrarchy are listed and discussed.
•  A few more folles of types previously discussed.
•  History: After the end of the Second Tetrarchy.
Another page covers
•  Dating coins. A page on how coins are attributed to the time of the Second Tetrarchy. 



Folles. There were 14 active mints. Some minted only the previous GENIO POPVLI ROMANI type from the First Tetrarchy and others issued new types. A list of mints and the types they issued is far below. Retirement types for Diocletian and Maximian are not included (They have their own page).

New types listed (and illustrated below. Types continued from the First Tetrarchy are further below):  


•  Four new types with FIDES MILITVM, only for the Augusti Constantius and Galerius (Here)
   FIDES MILITVM, Fides seated left with standard in each hand, at Ticinum and Aquileia (Here)
   FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left with standard in each hand, at Ticinum (Here)

   FIDES MILITVM AVGG ET CAESS NN, Fides seated with a standard in each hand, at Aquileia (Here)
   FIDES MILITVM AVGG ET CAESS NN, Fides standing with a standard in each hand, at Aquileia (Here)


•  Three new types with VIRTVS (Here)
   VIRTVS AVGG ET CAESS NN, Mars advancing right with spear and trophy over shoulder, only for the Caesars Severus II and Maximinus II. (Here) [later for Constantine as Caesar at Ticinum]  (Here)
   VIRTVS AVGG ET CAESS NN, Prince standing left with captive at feet left, holding small Victory and spear and shield, only for the Caesars and only at Aquileia [later for Constantine as Caesar at Ticinum] (not illustrated)

   VIRTVS AVGG ET CAESS NN, horseman riding right, spearing a foe, for all four rulers at Aquileia (Here) [and later for Constantine as Caesar and Severus II as Augustus]

•  PERPETVITAS AVGG, Roma seated left, helmeted, only for Severus II at Alexandria. (Here)

•  Two very similar Concordia types
    CONCORD IMPERII, Concordia standing front, only for Maximinus II at Alexandria. (Here)
    CONCORDIA IMPERII, Concordia standing front, only for three Caesars, Severus II, Maximinus II, and Constantine, at Siscia. (Here)


 
FIDES MILITVM.  There are four new types with FIDES MILITVM issued for the new Augusti, Constantius and Galerius, but not for the Caesars, at Ticinum and Aquileia. 


Constantius as Augustus
28 mm. 10.38 grams.
IMP C CONSTANTIVS PF AVG
Laureate head right

FIDES MILITVM
Fides seated left holding standard in each hand.
S T in exergue.
RIC Ticinum 55a "c. 305".

Fides types were issued only for the Augusti and only at Ticinum and Aquileia.

(An example for Galerius)

Galerius as Augustus
29 mm. 10.21 grams.
IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
Laureate head right
FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left with standard in each hand
VI in right field, AQS in exergue.
RIC Aquileia unlisted but would be 56b "c. 305". 

Note:  The obverse legend includes "MAXIMIANVS" but the coin is of Galerius, not Maximian. The portrait lacks the distinctive upturned nose of Maximian and the co-ruler in this issue is Constantius as Augustus. There is a page on how to distinguish the ruler we call Galerius from Maximian

 

 


Notes about this page:
  Almost all folles are like the first two in that they have "Laureate head right." Descriptions of obverse portraits below are omitted unless they are different.
  The essential reference is RIC (Roman Imperial Coinage) volume VI by C. H. V. Sutherland, 1973. Many varieties have been discovered since RIC VI was written, but there is still no better way to get both an overview and details of the coinage.



Constantius as Augustus
29-27 mm. 8.73 grams.
IMP CONSTANTIVS PF AVG
FIDES MILITVM AVGG ET CAESS NN
Fides seated left holding standard in each hand
AQS
RIC Aquileia 62a

 

 



Constantius as Augustus
28 mm. 8.84 grams.
IMP CONSTANTIVS PF AVG
FIDES MILITVM AVGG ET CAESS NN
Fides standing left holding standard in each hand
AQS
RIC Aquileia 60a

(This type for Galerius)

 

 

 


Virtus. The Caesars did not participate in the Fides issues from Ticinum and Aquileia. They had types with Virtus. The personification of Virtus is virtually identical with Mars, so the figure walking may be Virtus but is often called Mars.


Severus II as Caesar 
26-25 mm. 7.92 grams.
SEVERVS NOB CAESAR
VIRTVS AVGG ET CAESS NN, Mars advancing right with spear in right hand and holding trophy over his left shoulder.
PT in exergue.
RIC Ticinum 60a, "c. 306."

This type was also issued for Maximinus II, but not the Augusti.

 

 

The most striking new design has both an unusual helmeted head left and a horseman riding right.

Galerius as Augustus
28-25 mm. 8.24 grams.
IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
Bust in crested helmet left, holding scepter over far shoulder and shield in left.
VIRTVS AVGG ET CAESS NN
Horseman (emperor) galloping right, shield on left, spearing kneeling foe with dropped shield, prostrate foe below.
AQS  in exergue
RIC Aquileia 81a "25 July 306-c. March 307."

[This type began under the Second Tetrarchy, but this particular example is from after Constantine was added to the type. The only difference is in the obverse legend. This one has "IMP C" and the earlier one has just "IMP".]


PERPETVITAS AVGG at Alexandria.  At Alexandria, each ruler had his own type. This type was for Severus II.

 
Severus II as Caesar. 
27 mm. 
FL VAL SEVERVS NOB CAES
(FLavius VALerius SEVERVS NOBle CAESar)
PERPETVITAS AVGG, Roma, helmeted, seated left on throne with back, holding Victory on globe in right  and long vertical scepter in left, shield resting on the ground at her side.
S    B
      P
ALE in exergue.
RIC Alexandria 56.

 

 

Concordia.  There are two very similar types with Concordia.
    CONCORD IMPERII at Alexandria, for Maximinus II only (next coin), and
    CONCORD-IA IMPERI at Siscia, for Maximianus II, Severus II, and also Constantine as Caesar.


Maximinus II as Caesar.
28 mm. Surface-silvered.
GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB CAES
(GALerius VALerius MAXIMINVS NOBle CAESar)
CONCORD IMPERII
Concordia standing front, head left, right holding long scepter, left holding cross-fold of drapery
      Δ
S    P
ALE  in exergue
RIC Alexandria 52 "305-306".


 

 

 

At Alexandria each of the four rulers had only his own type. Severus II had  PERPETVITAS AVGG (next). Constantius had HERCVLI VICTORI and Galerius had IOVI CONS CAES--types which were continued from the First Tetrarchy. 


Maximinus II as Caesar
27 mm.
MAXIMINVS NOB CAES
CONCORD-IA IMPERII
    VI
SISB  in exergue
RIC Siscia 174b variety (officina B. Only Γ is listed.)

 

(An example for Severus II)

 

It is not certain this coin was issued during the Second Tetrarchy, even though the issue includes Severus II as Caesar. Read a page on assigning dates of issues.

Follis types that were continued from the First Tetrarchy are below, after the other denominations of the period. 

 

Other denominations. Other denominations include
•   post-reform radiate (next below)
•   quarter-follis, only at Siscia (below and on its own page)
•   rare so-called "fractions" mostly from Trier, but a few from Rome (below and on its own page)
•   argenteus, rare and soon to be discontinued  (below and on its own page

 

Post-Reform Radiate. The post-reform radiate (a.k.a. "radiate fraction") denomination was introduced in the reform of c. 294 and, although it is common, it was only issued at a few mints and never became a major part of the coinage system. It is not certain how the reform pegged its values of the denominations. Most authors think these new radiates were 2 denarii and five of these made one follis of 10 denarii (prior to Diocletian's Edict of Maximum prices). Where did the old aurelianus fit in?  I think it was also pegged at 2 denarii which explains seven things. The new radiate




Constantius as Augustus.
21-19 mm. 3.12 grams.
IMP CONSTANTIVS PF AVG
Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
CONCORDIA MILITVM
  R  in middle field
ALE  in exergue
RIC Alexandria 59aB.

All four rulers participated in this issue and it was continued for Severus II as Augustus and Constantine as Caesar. (A page about radiate fractions.)

 

 

Quarter-follis.  The quarter-follis denomination was issued only at Siscia at the beginning of the Second Tetrarchy. Before the 1990's, it was rare in the west because it had circulated in the region near Siscia which was behind the Iron Curtain. Now, it is far more common than the rarity ratings in RIC have it. It was issued for all four tetrarchs plus Maximian as Augustus. How Maximian fits in with the other four with Second Tetrarchy titles remains unexplained.


Constantius as Augustus
19 mm. 2.34 grams.  That is much smaller than the 28 mm follis and about 1/4 the weight. 
CONSTANTIVS AVG
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
RIC Siscia 169a "R2," but actually much more common than that.

There is a page devoted to quarter folles. It is not known why Siscia issued this smaller denomination with the old GENIO POPVLI ROMANI design and why they did not issue the full-size follis of this design when so many other mints did. 

 

 


Fractions.  For some unknown reason a few fractional denominations were issued c. 290-321, mostly at Trier, which celebrated anniversaries with small issues of small laureate coins which expressed vows. We follow Zschucke in calling them "fractions." (These are not the larger so-called "quarter follis" coins of Siscia above). A few are from Rome. Zschucke lists 263 fractional varieties from Trier. We do not know the ancient names of these small denominations, nor are we certain how they relate to the other denominations of Diocletian's coin reform of c. 294, the "follis" or "nummis," the post-reform radiates, and the silver argenteus. Zschucke calls them "1/8 [follis]" (the smaller ones) and "1/4" (the larger ones) with a few later ones under Constantine called "1/2."  Unusual small coins like these were issued in the names of emperors Diocletian through Crispus and Constantine II.
 

This coin marks the promotion of Severus II to Caesar.

Severus II, Caesar 305-306. Augustus 306-307.
13-12 mm. 1.09 grams. "1/8"
Struck for May 1, 305 (the abdication of the Augusti and elevation of the Caesars) for his elevation to Caesar.
SEVER-VS NOB C
VOT/X/CAESS
RIC Trier 685a "R2". "305-6"
Zschucke 5.13 "1/8", for May 1, 305.

  (For more about fractions, see this page on fractions.)




Argenteus.  There are very rare argentei with a second-tetrarchy title. They show that the argenteus denomination--begun c. 294--continued into the second Tetrarchy. 


Constantius as Augustus.
Silver argenteus.
20-19 mm. 3.41 grams.
CONSTANTIVS AVG
VIRTVS MILITVM

•SM•SDΔ• in exergue
RIC Serdica 11a "R4". 
   
Serdica minted argentei for all four rulers. Each is R4 or R5 in RIC, but more examples (such as this one) have been found since RIC was written.

  (For much more about argentei, see the page on argentei.)

 

 

 



Previous types of folles.  Six follis types had been used previously under the First Tetrarchy. Of course, for the Second Tetrarchy the titles change. The types are: 

•  GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, for all four rulers at London, Trier, Lugdunum, Serdica, Heraclea, Nicomedia, Cyzicus, and Antioch. (Here)
        (Siscia did not use this legend on folles, but did on the new quarter-follis denomination.)
•  SACRA MONETA AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR, for all four at Siscia and Rome. (Here)
•  SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART, for all four from Carthage. (Here)
•  GENIO AVGG ET CAESS NN, Genius standing, for the Caesars at Cyzicus. (Here)
•  HERCVLI VICTORI, only for Constantius at Alexandria and for all four at Siscia. (Here)
•  IOVI CONS CAES, only for Galerius at Alexandria.  (Here)

 


GENIO AVGG ET CAESARVM NN at Cyzicus. This type (ending CAESS NN) had been issued for the Caesars of the First Tetrarchy at Cyzicus (Here). It continued for the Caesars of the Second Tetrarchy--only the Caesars and only at Cyzicus.




Severus II as Caesar
FL VAL SEVERVS NOB CAES
GENIO AVGG ET CAESARVM NN, Genius standing left with patera and cornucopia
KΔ in exergue
RIC Cyzicus 20a. "305-306"

 

 

Carthage. Carthage issued only one type and that type was issued only at Carthage. It was continued from the First Tetrarchy and issued for all four rulers.



Severus II as Caesar
28 mm.
FL VAL SEVERVS NOB CAES
SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART
Carthage standing holding out fruits in each hand
H in field left, Γ in exergue.
RIC Carthage 40a.


(An example for Maximinus II)

 

Alexandria. Alexandria issued HERCVLI VICTORI for the western Augustus and IOVI CONS CAES for the eastern Augustus, but not for the Caesars. Under the First Tetrarchy HERCVLI VICTORI had been issued both for the western Augustus and Caesar and IOVI CONS CAES for both the eastern Augustus and Caesar.

[This example is of Maximian as Augustus under the First Tetrarchy, but is of the type issued for Constantius as Augustus under the Second Tetrarchy.] 

Maximian during the First Tetrarchy.
27 mm. 10.63 grams.
HERCVLI VICTORI
Hercules resting right hand on club and holding out apples in his left hand
 S  P
     Є
ALE in exergue
RIC Alexandria 38.

The obverse legend for Constantius is
IMP C CONSTANTIVS PF AVG


Galerius, during the Second Tetrarchy
27-26 mm. 9.82 grams.
IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
HERCVLI VICTORI
VI
  SISA
RIC Siscia 165b "305-6"

This type is also issued with this field mark (VI in the left field) for Constantius as Augustus and Maximinus II as Caesar, which confirm that this is a Second-Tetrarchy issue and this "MAXIMIANVS" is Galerius, not Maximian. 

 

 

[This example is of Galerius as Caesar under the First Tetrarchy, but is of the type issued for Galerius as Augustus under the Second Tetrarchy.]

Galerius during the First Tetrarchy.
26 mm. 9.04 grams.
GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES
IOVI CONS CAESS
Jupiter standing holding Victory on globe, and scepter
       B
  S    P
ALE  in exergue
RIC Alexandria 43

The obverse legend for Galerius as Augustus is
IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG  (in perfect parallel with the legend of Constantius).

 

SACRA MONETA.  The second most common type under the First Tetrarchy, SACRA MONETA, was continued only at Rome and Siscia.  Rome used the legend SAC MON VRB AVGG ET CAESS NN (note the addition of "VRB") for all four and Siscia the more-usual SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAES NN for all four. Two examples are illustrated here and this type has its own page.

[This coin is from Rome with Constantius as Caesar, not as Augustus. But at least it shows the reverse type.]

Constantius during the First Tetrarchy
27 mm. 9.55 grams
CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
SAC MON VRB AVGG ET CAESS NN
R<crescent>T
RIC Rome 112a "c. 303-5"

The obverse legend for Constantius as Augustus is
IMP C CONSTANTIVS AVG

 

 

[This coin is of Galerius as Caesar under the First Tetrarchy, but it has the reverse type used at Siscia under the Second Tetrarchy, with a reverse legend variant (NOSTR for NN).]

Galerius during the First Tetrarchy
26 mm. 9.24 grams.
MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES
SACRA MONET AVG ET CAESS NOSTR
       V
  AQΓ  in exergue 
RIC Aquileia 32b "c. 301"

The Galerius as Augustus type at Siscia has obverse legend
IMP C MAXIMIANVS AVG.

 

 


GENIO POPVLI ROMANI. By far the most common follis type is GENIO POVPLI ROMANI. It was very common under the First Tetrarchy and continued to be common during the Second Tetrarchy. Example from the time of the Second Tetrarchy are next and many more examples from under the First Tetrachy can be seen on their own pages
 


Constantius as Augustus
27-25 mm. 8.76 grams.
IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTIVS PF AVG
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, head with tower, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopia.
HTS in exergue.  
RIC Heraclea 24a "1 May 305-25 July 306" (i.e. as Augustus).


That type was issued for all four rulers and continued after the end of the Second Tetrarchy. 









Galerius as Augustus. 
27 mm. 9.42 grams. Much surface-silvering. 
IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
(IMPerator Caesar GALerius VALerius MAXIMIANVS Pius Felix AVGustus)
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI

Є in right field. •SM•SD in exergue, for "Sacra Moneta, SerDica."
RIC VI Serdica 12b.  

 

 

The coins of Severus II as Caesar are from the Second Tetrarchy, or just a short while longer. According to the tetrarchal system the Caesar was promoted when the position of Augustus became vacant. Severus II was Caesar in the west and was duly promoted after the death of the western Augustus, Constantius. However, there may have been a time lag before Severus II was acknowledged Augustus while Galerius, the eastern Augustus, gave his advice and consent.



Severus II as Caesar
27 mm. 9.54 grams.
FL VAL SEVERVS NOB CAESAR
(FLavius VALerius SEVERVS NOble CAESAR)
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
A in right field. •SM•SD• in exergue.
RIC VI Serdica 13a, "1 May 305 - 25 July 306."   

 

 


At Trier there was an issue for the four rulers with Genius naked (not illustrated here for Trier, but the coins above show the type) as had been the only depiction of Genius since the design's inception in 294, followed by an issue with loins draped that included Constantine as Caesar. Differences like these affect dating. The next two coins are from that "loins draped" issue which is discussed in detail on this page about dating

Severus II as Caesar
27 mm.
FL VAL SEVERVS NOB C
Bust right, laureate and cuirassed.
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, head with tower, loins draped, holding patera and cornucopia, S in left field, F in right field. (That might abbreviate "Saeculi Felicitas"--happy times.)
PTR in exergue
RIC Trier 651 "1 May 305 - early 307"

 

 

Maximinus II was Caesar from May 305 until early 309 when he became Augustus, so his coins as Caesar may or may not be issued during the Second Tetrarchy. 


Maximinus II as Caesar
27 mm.
GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB C
Bust right, laureate and cuirassed.

GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, head with tower, loins draped, holding patera and cornucopia.
S in left field, F in right field. (That might abbreviate "Saeculi Felicitas"--happy times.)
PTR in exergue
RIC Trier 667b "1 May 305 - early 307"

These control marks and mintmark are used on an issue at Trier where Genius is naked and only the four rulers participate. This coin with "loins draped" is from a second part of that time period in which five rulers, including Constantine participate. Maybe the elevation of Constantine was enough to change the presentation of Genius and this type is later than the Second Tetrarchy. Or, maybe the issue was in progress when Constantine was elevated and he joined it late.

 



Mints of the Second Tetrarchy and their follis types. "GPR" abbreviates "GENIO POPVLI ROMANI for all four tetrarchs." This list does not include retirement types for Diocletian and Maximian.

 


History: The end of the Second Tetrarchy. The "Second Tetrarchy" only lasted until Constantius died in July 306. At that time his son Constantine was promoted without the advice and consent of the other rulers, either by the dying Augustus Constantius or by the army after his death. The orderly system that had created the Second Tetrarchy lasted less than two years. In short summary, after Constantius died in July 306:

•  Constantine was aclaimed emperor by the army when Constantius died in July 306, or by Constantius as he was dying
•  Severus II was elevated to Augustus in the west by Galerius (the remaining, eastern, Augustus). There may be some time lapse because there are issues (at Trier and Siscia) with both Severus and Constantine as Caesars. (Discussed on the page about dating)

•  Maxentius, son of Maximian, seized power in Rome in October 306
•  Maximian came out of retirement to join him in November, and resumed the title Augustus and began his "second reign"
•  both Maxentius (early[?] 307) and Constantine (July 307) took the title Augustus, (There are issues with Maxentius as Augustus and Constantine as Caesar) and 
•  Severus II was killed in the summer of 307 after failing to retake his territory which included the city of Rome.

Each of these events is reflected in the coinage. Galerius, eastern Augustus, tried to restore order. His attempt is discussed on the page about the coins of the period from 306-310 when coins were issued for Constantine with the new title "FIL AVG"


A few more examples.  An example of each follis type of the Second Tetrarchy is given above. Next are a few more examples.



Galerius as Augustus
27 mm. 11.83 grams.
IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
FIDES MILITVM
    •   in right field
 ST  in exergue
RIC Ticinum 55b "1 May 305 - July 306"

(This type for Constantius)

 




Galerius as Augustus
27 mm. 10.85 grams.
IMP MAXIMINVS PF AVG

FIDES MILITVM AVGG ET CAESS NN
Fides standing left holding standard in each hand
AQP  in exergue
RIC Aquileia 60b

(This type for Constantius)

 



Severus II as Caesar
28-27 mm. 9.86 grams.
SEVERVS NOBILISSIMVS CAES
Bust right, laureate, draped, and cuirassed. 

GENIO POPVLI ROMANI

no mintmark = London mint

RIC London 59a 
Cloke and Toone 4.02.016, page 122 "1 May 305 - 26 July 306"

 

 


Maximinus II as Caesar
29-27 mm. 8.52 grams.
GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB C
Bust right, laureate, draped, and cuirassed. 
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI

RIC London 57
Cloke and Toone 4.03.021, "1 May 305-Spring 307"

 


Severus II as Caesar
33-30 mm. Unusually large flan.
SEVERVS NOB C
Bust right, laureate, draped, and cuirassed. 

GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
altar left at feet of Genius  
    ✳ right
PLG  in exergue
RIC Lugdunum 199a, "1 May 305 - July 306"
Sear IV 14632

(Go to the other GENIO POPVLI ROMANI coins above)



Severus II as Caesar
27-25 mm.
FL VAL SEVERVS NOB C
CONCORDIA IMPERII
  VI
SISΓ  in exergue
RIC Siscia 173a 

(This type for Maximinus II)


 


Maximinus II as Caesar
29-27 mm. 10.42 grams.
GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB CAES
SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART
I
 Δ  in exergue
Carthage standing front, head left, holding out fruits.
RIC Carthage 40b "1 May 305-25 July 306"

(This type for Severus II)

 

 


 

References

RIC   Roman Imperial Coinage, volume VI. 1973. It is the essential reference for the period. Many varieties have been discovered since this book was published, but there is no easy way know more than is in this book. Many collectors use RIC solely to provide identification numbers, but it has far more interesting information than just that, including lots of history and chronology with relevant coin evidence.

Cloke and Toone, The London Mint of Constantius and Constantine. 2015. The latest word on coins of the London mint.

Failmezger, Victor. Roman Bronze Coins from Paganism to Christianity, 294-364 A.D. 2002. A complete list of types (but not mints, varieties, and RIC numbers) from the coin reform to 364, with very many color photos and short outlines of the history, with chapters on collectible types like the "fallen horseman" coins of the coin reform of 348. I love this book and use it to keep track of types.

Sear, David. Roman Coins and their Values, IV. 2011. 

Zschucke, Carl-Fridrich. Die Bronze-Teilstück-Prägungen der römischen Münzstätte Trier. 1989. Small paperback. 65 pages with over 200 fractions illustrated.


 


Go to the page on the coins of the First Tetrarchy.

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