Byzantine Emperors on Coins, AD 491-c.1118.
This page is page 3 of this site and shows some typical copper coins in chronological order. I highly recommend the history books by Norwich which tell the stories of the emperors.
Other pages: Page 1 outlines the coinage and discuss dates and mints.
Page 2 is "Byzantine-Coin Letters, Numerals, Denominations, and Dates."
The current page is page 3 which covers emperors from 491- c. 1118. It has links to maps of the empire every 100 years.
Page 4 is "Late Byzantine AE, 1059-1204" (Constantine X to the fall of Constantinople to the crusaders.)
Page 5 is "Byzantine Coins, 1204-1453."
There is a page "Byzantine-coin legends. How to read Byzantine coins."
There is a page about recommended reference works.
Skip down to 582, Maurice, or 610, Heraclius, or 717, Leo III (beginning the iconoclastic period) or 813, Leo V, or 829, Theophilus, or 867, Basil I, or 886, Leo VI, or 969, John I, or 1081, Alexius I.
Anastasius (491-518). The widow of his predecessor Zeno selected Anastasius to be the next emperor. He was frugal and died peacefully leaving the treasury with 320,000 pounds of gold--enough to finance most of the grandiose plans of Justinian.
20 mm. 5.09 grams. "Small module"
Large K for 20-nummus. Cross to left with N I for Nicomedia
Sear 41, from Nicomedia.
Small module denominations are scarce.
Here is an off-site map of Europe in AD 500. (The Byzantine Empire is in pink and includes the east half of the Roman Empire.)
Justin I (518-527). Anastasius died without picking a successor. Justin I, 518-527, a successful general, was chosen by the army to succeed Anastasius.
Justin I, 518-527.
Large, heavy follis.
36-33 mm. 15.90 grams.
DN IVSTI-NVS P AVG
NIKM for Nicomedia.
Justinian (527-565). Justinian is one of the most interesting rulers of all time. He built the magnificent Church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. He reconquered North Africa, Sicily, and Italy from the Vandals and Goths. He survived the "Nika Revolt" with the help of his beautiful wife Theodora. The plague raged in the empire several times during his reign, which also experienced earthquakes and a war with the Sasanians. He was the subject of a favorable biography by his contemporary Procopius and later subject to the most damning biography possible ("Secret History") by the same author! Those two books prove that history is not fixed, but can be "spun" by authors. We can understand why a historian would praise a ruler in power, but we don't know why Procopius decided to rewrite the same story in the most extreme negative light.
Very large, massive coin. [Photo reduced in proportion to the others--it's too big!]
40 mm. 22.84 grams. (Larger than a US silver dollar)
Justinian reformed the copper coinage in his year 12, 538/9. He increased the size, changed the busts which had been profile busts to facing busts, and added the regnal-year date. This coin is ANNO (year) XIII (13) which is 539/540.
The "Є" is "5" in Greek and is the number of the officina (workshop of the mint).
CON for Constantinopolis.
Justin II (565-578). Justinian was succeeded by his nephew, Justin II, 565-578, who became seriously mentally ill and relied upon his wife, Sophia, and later on Tiberius II, Caesar from 574, who with Sophia effectively ruled under Justin II for the last four years before Justin II died.
Tiberius Constantine a.k.a. Tiberius II, 578-582.
30 mm. 13.41 grams.
Struck year 8 (GII = 6+2 = 8, reckoned from when he became Caesar under Justin II).
Legends are usually blundered but "TIb CON" can be seen on this one 9:00-11:00.
Tiberius holds a mappa in his left hand and an eagle-tipped scepter in his right.
Rounded uncial "m" (instead of an angular "M")
For some unknown reason the remote mint of Cherson (in Crimea in the north Black Sea) decided to reckon values in pentanummi (5-nummus) coins so their "H" on coins, which is 8 in Greek, was 8 pentanummi, or the usual 40-nummus follis.
32-30 mm. 11.45 grams.
DNMAVC-AVSPPAV (MAVCAVS is Maurice, blundered)
Maurice and his wife nimbate (with halos)
Uncertain standing figure, large "H" for "8" to the right.
8 x 5 = 40 nummi.
There are very similar coins with legend XEPCωNOC = Cherson(os) with only the name of the mint and not the name of the ruler. Various numismatists have tried to explain why and when the name of the emperor was omitted, but no consensus has emerged. See my site for more on the Cherson mint.
Here is an off-site map of Europe in AD 600. (The Byzantine Empire is in pink. North Africa and parts of Italy were added to the empire under Justinian.)
Phocas (602-610). Tiberius II was too generous. His unnecessarily extravagant gifts had left the treasury empty. The income during the reign of Maurice was not enough to support the military at the level required. He even had to decrease its rations. That was too much to bear and discontent in the army led to the overthrow of Maurice and installation of Phocas in 602.
26-24 mm. 9.79 grams.
DN FOCA NЄPЄ AV
Holding mappa and eagle-tipped scepter.
THEUP is a mintmark for Antioch under its new name, Theopolis.
Date ANNO UIII = year 8 = 609/610.
At Antioch in years 1-7 he is depicted alongside empress Leontia, but in year 8 he is depicted alone.
Maurice had helped the Sasanian King Khursru II (aka Chosroes II) gain his throne. Chosroes used the overthrow of his benefactor Maurice as excuse to invade. By 608 much of Asia was overrun and a forward part of the Sasanian army was across the straits within sight of Constantinople. Also, the Balkans were under attack from the Slavs and Avars. Furthermore, Phocas initiated religious persecutions that inflamed the Byzantine population of the east against each other. The situation of the empire was dire. The inevitable revolt broke out in North Africa in 608. The Exarch Heraclius of Carthage and his son of the same name eventually overthrew Phocas in 610. The older Heraclius stepped aside and the younger Heraclius became one of the most significant Byzantine emperors, reigning 610-641.
27 mm. 11.05 grams.
DNhЄRACI - ....HIVS...
The obverse legend is blundered (which is typical for the period).
It seems to be year 1. The coin is overstruck on a coin with a * (above the O in NIKO) which might be a coin of Justin I (Sear 630).
NIKO for Nicomedia.
Heraclius was energetic and capable. However, before he could get going, the Sasanaians under Khrusru II had overrun Antioch, Damascus, Jerusalem, and Alexandria. They even issued coins at Alexandria that closely resembled Byzantine coins from that mint.
Sasanian occupation of Alexandria, 618-628
18 mm. Thick. 6.16 grams.
Facing bust (of Khusrus II?)
I+B over AΛЄΞ
In 614 when Jerusalem was captured the Church of the Holy Sepulcher was destroyed, most Christian inhabitants were killed, and the True Cross was taken. Before this disaster could be avenged, Heraclius had to reorganize the remaining parts of the empire to assure their survival by dividing the west into Themes under military supervision instead of civilian supervision. Money was raised from imaginative sources. For the first time even the Church contributed. In 622 Heraclius was ready. In a very complex campaign (even the Khazars were enlisted) fought on three fronts, the Sasasanians were beat back from the walls of Constantinople in 626 while Heraclius won many victories in the east. He marched to the Sasanian capitol Ctesiphon and destroyed it in 627. Khursu II was overthrown and executed by one of this sons who signed a treaty giving the Byzantines back everything from before the conflict including the conquered provinces and the True Cross.
Khusru II, Sasanian King, 590-628
32 mm. Thin silver drachm. 4.13 grams.
Bust of Khrsru II right with his distinctive tall winged helmet decoration.
The legend outside the rim at 4:00 to 5:30 says "good" (silver).
Two attendants either side of a Zoroastrian file altar
Sellwood Type II 62.
Sasanians minted broad, thin, silver drachms. Many survive in excellent condition. Gold is rare. Sasanian silver is many times as common as Sasanian copper which is often in poor condition.
Had the reign of Heraclius ended in 628 (it actually ended in 641) he would be regarded as the most successful Byzantine emperor. However, Mohammed migrated from Mecca to Medina (then known as Yathrib, now in Saudi Arabia) in 622 which began the Moslem era. Arabs burst out the desert and conquered neighboring lands amazingly rapidly. Syria was invaded in 632 and in 638 Jerusalem was conquered. The Byzantine-Sassanian war had exhausted both combatants and left them unable to resist Arab expansion. By 637 the Arabs had conquered the Sasanian capitol and the treasury, pushing the remaining Sasanian warlords to the east where they were extinguished by 651.
A earlier coin of Justinian overstruck by a two-sided countermark.
The bust of Heraclius and his mongram
SCL, with a bar above for Sicily.
Sear 882, struck on Justinian Sear 161.
Many Byzantine coins were struck on earlier coins. At first, this "type" from Sicily was overstruck on large folles. It was not long before similar strikes were on flans barely larger than the countermark.
Heraclius issued many coins with three figures on the obverse.
Heraclius, his wife Martina (right), and Constantine (left).
26-23 mm. 5.84 grams.
Large M with + and ANNO across the top
Monogram of Heraclius to left, X/UI/II to right
KVZ for Cyzicus in exergue.
When the Arabs conquered Syria their first coins imitated Byzantine types. This type, with three standing figures, was commonly imitated.
When Heraclius died his will (possibly dictated by Martina, his wife) gave the empire to Martina and his sons Constantine and Heraclonas. Martina tried to assume power. Constantine was an invalid and died (was poisoned?) after only three months. Martina and Heraclonas were left, but very unpopular, partly because of their support of a heresy, and demonstrations resulted in Martina and Heraclonas being disfigured and Constantine's 11-year old son elevated. His name had (also) been Heraclius but he took the name Constans (II) and began rule under the regency of the Senate.
Constans II (641-668). After Heraclius battled the Sasanians and then the Arabs, the empire was much weakened and it shows in the coins which are of much-reduced quality. The coins are smaller and lighter, the flans are irregular, and workmanship is poor both in engraving the dies and striking the coins.
Constans II, 641-668
Follis. 23-19 mm. 6.76 grams.
Sear 2005, at Constantinople.
It may be hard to believe, but this ragged coin is better than most under Constans II.
Constans II, 641-668
24 mm. 4.38 grams.
Long bearded Constans II facing, holding globus cruciger, palm branch to right
AN to left of Monogram of Constans, I to right.
(I = 10, the indictional year 651/2).
Indictions were 15-year fiscal periods. Few Byzantine coins were dated by indictional years, but we know Sicilian coins of Constans II were.
Sear 1113, at Syracuse, Sicily.Coins of Constans II, especially gold coins, often show him with a very long beard.
Justinian II (685-695 and 705-711). Constantine IV had Justinian (II) when he was 17. In 685 Justinian inherited the throne. His coins are almost all poor, but his story makes his coins desirable. When he was deposed at the end of his first reign in 695 he was not killed. Byzantine emperors, representatives of Christ on earth, were supposed to be without significant blemish. Cutting off Justinian II's nose and banishment was thought to be enough to preclude his return to the throne. However, they didn't reckon with the resourceful and vengeful Justinian II! After ten years of scheming to make alliances with barbarians he returned to Constantinople with an Bulgarian army at his back and took the throne (and a great deal of vengeance).
Tiberius III (698-705). The Muslims captured Carthage in 698. The naval expedition under Aspimir that was sent to relieve Carthage failed and rather than return in disgrace Aspimir rebelled, returned to Constantinople at the head of his fleet, became emperor, and changed his name to Tiberius (III).
Tiberius III, 698-705
17 mm. 2.56 grams.
Monogram of Theodosius above M flanked by palm branches
Here is an off-site map of Europe in AD 700. (The Byzantine Empire is in pink. Africa has been lost to the Arabs. Some of the Balkans have been lost. Much of Italy has been lost, and the eastern border of the empire has retreated somewhat.)
Leo III (717-741). Justinian II was the last emperor of the dynasty of Heraclius. He second reign ended in 711. After a few short-lived emperors, Leo III ("The Isaurian", 717-741) came to power at a critical time for the empire when the Arabs were again threatening Constantinople. The city and therefore Europe were saved, but at great cost. Leo is best known for initiating iconoclasm--the prohibition of icons and any pictorial representations of religious subjects. Forbidding religious images could be justified by teh Bible but was unpopular. His coins are rare and usually in poor condition.
Leo III, 717-714
24 mm. 7.81 grams.
His bust facing, globus cruciger in right
small facing bust of Constantine V over large M between ANN and XX
This same Sear number comes in this "large" size and a much-smaller size down to 17 mm and 2.5 grams. Most are not well struck and in terrible condition.
Constantine V with Leo IV, 751-775
16 mm. 2.40 grams.
This example has their names vertially down the left:
KωNS for Constantine and ΛЄON for Leo, ΔЄCΠ = despot, down the right)
Syracuse mint. with its typical green patina.
Leo IV (775-780). Leo succeeded his father.
Irene (780-802). Among the many interesting rulers of the Byzantine empire is Irene, wife of Leo IV and mother of his son, Constantine VI, who became a child emperor at age 10 when Leo IV died, with Irene as regent. She was ousted and her son became emperor, but he alienated so many people that she realized he was ripe to be overthrown. She managed it and blinded her own son to assure he would not return to the throne. She became sole ruler 797-802. For the first time a woman took power in her own name. (Here is a silver coin of Constantine VI and Irene and more of the story.)
Irene (597-802) struck with her son Constantine VI, 780-797
before she ruled alone.
19 mm. 2.70 grams.
Her bust facing
Bust of Constantine VI above a horizontal line, below which
a large M with X and N either side, A below.
Struck at Constantinople.
Here is an off-site map of Europe in AD 800. (The Byzantine Empire is in pink. A bit more of Italy has been lost, but Sicily retained.)
Nicephorus I (802-811). In 800 Charlemagne (of the "Holy Roman Empire") was crowned "Emperor of the Romans" by the pope. For centuries there had been no western emperor to challenge the east as the sole Roman empire. Although Irene was the legitmate ruler by eastern rules of succession, it was understood in the west that a woman could not be a Roman ruler, so the west felt the eastern throne was empty even though it was occupied by Irene. An embassy was sent to explore the possibility of Charlemagne marrying Irene and uniting the empire, but the Byzantines wanted nothing to do with a boorish and illiterate westerner. They decided they needed a male ruler--any male. So Irene was deposed and replaced by Nicephorus I.
Nicephorus I, 802-811
23-22 mm. 5.53 grams.
The reverse is said to be "immobilized" because it is an unchanging type. It resembles the formerly meaningful "ANNO year" layout, but with the meaningless XXX down the left and NNN to the right. Also, "A" is the only symbol in the position formerly held by the officina numeral.
Nicephorus I, 802-811
22 mm. 5.49 grams.
Nicephorus (on left) and his son Stauracius (803-811)
Sear 1607. Constantinople mint.
Michael I, Rhangabe, 811-813. Nicephorus was the first emperor since Valens (in 378) to be killed in battle. After some significant military successes against the Slavs and Bulgarians, Nicephorus managed to get himself killed and his son mortally wounded in battle against the Bulgarians. Stauracius lived on only a short while and issued no new coin types. He passed the throne to Michael I (811-813).
Michael I, 811-813.
19-16 mm. 2.59 grams.
His facing bust in chlamys
His facing bust in loros
Sear 1624, Syracuse mint.
His portrait is on both sides, which is unusual. He is wearing a chlamys on one and a loros on the other. Also, the legend is M-IXA on both sides. ("X" is "chi" in Greek for "ch")
Leo V (813-82).
Leo V, 813-820, and his son Constantine
23 mm. 5.62 grams.
LЄOҺ S COҺS ("Leo and Constantine")
The same immobilized reverse as on the previous coin.
Portrait convention: If two rulers are portrayed, the senior ruler is on the left and usually, but not always, a bit larger. Very young rulers may be smaller than their regents, for example Constantine VII is smaller than his regent Zoe.)
Naming Convention: If a son has the same name as other rulers, here "Constantine," usually his name is not given a number unless he later was primary ruler. For example, Constantine VI, son of Leo IV (775-780), ruled alone 780-797. As the first to do so since Constantine V, he is "VI". The son Constantine on this coin did not rule alone, so he is just "Constantine" (son of Leo V), one of many Constantines without numbers.
Michael II (820-829). Michael II replaced Leo V after Leo was assassinated because of his extreme iconoclast policies.
Michael II, 820-829 and his son Theophilus
31-28 mm. 7.96 grams.
MIXAHL S Θ-ЄΟΦΙΛΟS
The Θ below may refer to Theophilus (ΘЄΟΦΙΛΟS).
28 mm. 7.87 grams.
ΘЄ-ΟFIL bASIL (We spell it with "ph" but his coins spell it with "F")
Struck 829-830/1 by Theophius alone at Constantinople, before the next type was issued.
The same immobilized reverse type with Θ in the place of the officina number. Again, The Θ may refer to Theophilus (ΘЄΟΦΙΛΟS).
Theophilus (829-842) and his son Constantine.
31-30 mm. 8.40 grams.
The coin was struck 830 or 831.
The figure on the right is Theophilus's son, Constantine.
The obverse legend names both: ΘЄOFILOS S COSTAҺC
The second S-like symbol is for "and".
In this period sons were promoted to the throne young and the portrait coins do not reflect the co-ruler's true age. In this case Constantine was an infant who died within a year, making this issue very rare.
Sear 1665, at Constantinople.
Michael III (842-867). Theophilus took ill and died in 842 leaving the throne to another infant son, Michael III. At first Michael III had his mother as regent. After she and other claimants were eliminated, in 866 Michael proclaimed Basil I, formerly a lowly stablehand, his co-emperor. Bad decision. In 867 Basil murdered Michael and assumed sole rule as the founder of the "Macedonian Dynasty."
There is only one copper coin type of Michael III from Constantinople (the previous type, Sear 1693) and it is rare. His small coins from Syracuse are more common. The remote mint of Cherson (in Crimea in the north of the Black Sea) issued some cast coins with the initials of the rulers.
Michael III and Basil I, 866-867.
15 mm. 1.20 grams
MB for their initials
ΠX for Polis (city of) Cherson (X is a chi in Greek)
There are no coins at all like this from mints other than Cherson.
Basil I (867-886). After he murdered Michael III, Basil issued coins with his sons.
Basil I, the Macedonian, and his son Constantine (867-886).
Struck winter 867/8.
+bASIL/S COҺSTA/TIҺOSЄҺΘO/bASILЄ IS R/OMAOҺ
Basil and Constantine, by the grace of God, kings of the Romans
Leo VI (886-912). Because Constantine predeceased Basil, Leo VI was next to the throne. Nicknamed "The Wise," he indulged in scholarship to the neglect of statesmanship. He produced very many coins of the next type.
Leo VI, The Wise, 886-912.
27 mm. 7.96 grams.
+LЄON BAS-ILЄVS ROM '
Four-line reverse legend:
"Leo, by the grace of God, King of the Romans."
Sear 1729. Constantinople mint.
Constantine VII (913-959). Leo VI, the wise, did not have a male heir until his fourth wife presented him with Constantine VII. (Having four wives got Leo in a lot of trouble with the church.) When Leo died there were historical complications I omit. Then Constantine VII became emperor while still a minor, with his mother Zoe as regent.
Romanus I (920-944). Invasions by the Bulgarians required the help of an able military man and the admiral Romanus I pushed himself into the role of regent and co-emperor, forcing out Zoe. He issued coins in his own name during the nominal reign of Constantine VII.
In the name of Romanus I, 920-944, under Constantine VII. 913-959.
27 mm. 6.95 grams.
Obverse legend: + RWMAҺ BASILЄVS RWM
Reverse: +RWMA/N'ЄҺBЄW bA/SILЄVS RW/MAIWҺ
Sear 1760. Constantinople mint.
Here is an example of the type without so much of an undertype visible.
Constantine VII, alone, 945-950, after Romanus I was deposed.
24 mm. 7.05 grams.
In 950 Constantine VII began to issue coins with his own young child, Romanus II.
Constantine VII and Romanus II (945-963),
struck c.950-959 [That is, until Constantine VII died.]
27-25 mm. 7.68 grams.
COҺST CЄ ROMAҺ b ROM
Their facing busts.
COҺST'/ЄE ROMAҺ/ЄҺ XRIST/b ROMЄO
Sear 1762 under Constantine VII. Constantinople mint.
Nicephorus II (963-969). Romanus II, 959-963, died young and the only copper type given to him in Sear (Sear 1775) is from Cherson and has been reattributed to Romanus I by Russian scholars. The mother of Romanus II was named regent and she married Nicephorus II, Phocas, 963-969, a successful general.
Nicephorus II, 963-969, overstruck on a coin of Constantine VII (913-959)
29-28 mm. 8.20 grams.
ҺICIFR ... from 9:00
Facing bust of Nicephorus II
Four-line reverse legend:
Sear 1782 overstruck on Sear 1761 of Constantine VII alone. To see the undertype, next is the same coin rotated to make the undertype upwards.
CONST bA is clear from 7:30 to 10:30 and the shoulder and right arm of Constantine VII are visible above 6:30. The left side of the head is visible just left of the "Wb" near 10:30, and the globus cruciger in his left hand shows at 3:00.
Under the bust of Nicephorus II we can see parts of the four-line legend of the undertype (here, slightly tilted from 9:20 to 3:30.
Sear 1761 of Constantine VII alone is the undertype.
John I (969-976). Nicephorus II was assassinated by his successor, John I, Tzimisces, 969-976. The devout John initiated "anonymous folles"--folles without the issuing emperor's names--and has no copper coins from Constantinople in his own name. However, the outlying mint Cherson did issue one type with his monogram.
John I, 969-976.
17 mm. Cast. (Coins of Cherson after 829 were cast, which is extremely exceptional.)
Monogram of John (in Greek)
Monogram BACIΛIOɣ (emperor)
Sear 1794, Cherson mint.
Cast coins of Cherson are usually weak on one side and worse on the other, because casting does not impress a type well the way striking does. This example is among the best of its type.
Anonymous follis of Class A1, attributed to John I.
24-22 mm. 5.74 grams.
Facing nimbate bust of Christ with two dots in each limb.
with no decoration above or below.
The two dots and lack of decoration distinguish the coins attributed to John from coins attributed to later emperors. Many coins said to be (by ignorant sellers) Class A1 are really Class A2.
For much more about anonymous folles, see my page here.
It is unfortunate for collectors that the named coins of the next several emperors are only in gold or silver, not copper. However, anonymous folles are common and scholars have worked to identify the emperors who issued the various classes (i.e. types). Their most-recent identifications are on my page. Every dealer selling an anonymous follis lists a name of a ruler associated with the type. Some of the names are certain and others are not so certain.
The period of anonymous folles had some interesting emperors, including Basil II, "The Bulgar Slayer." His life is full of interesting events, but he is best known for eliminating the threat of the Bulgars who had conquered most the Balkans. After some ups and downs, Basil defeated them in a battle in 1014 and instead of merely killing the 15,000 captives as would have been typical, he blinded 99 of every 100 and left one with only one eye to lead them back home. When the sorry train of disabled men reached the castle of the Bulgarian Tsar Samuel he was so upset he died in a fit of apoplexy. Leaderless, the Bulgars did not recover. The Byzantines reclaimed the entire Balkan peninsula. (Aside: Ancient and medieval times were amazingly brutal. Be glad we live in the 21st century and are so well-off that we can collect Byzantine coins.)
Here is an off-site map of Europe in AD 1000. (The Byzantine Empire is in pink. The empire includes only the regions of modern Greece and Turkey. The eastern border is further east than in 900, but is in flux.)
Nicephorus III (1078-1081). Some anonymous folles ["Class I"] have been attributed to the Byzantine emperor Nicephorus III (1078-1081). He has one other follis type that is not anonymous, Sear 1888. It is quite scarce (although low valued in Sear) and rarely comes at all nice (remember, we are discussing Byzantine copper). The Sear plate coin is not pleasing--the photograph is hard to decipher.
Nicephorus III, 1078-1081.
23-22 mm. 5.55 grams.
Christ standing facing, IC XC either side, eight-pointed stars below, either side.
in quadrants of cross with big dot at each end. Eight-pointed star in circle.
According to Whitting, Byzantine Coins, the letters abbreviate
May the cross (C) protect (Φ)
Nicephorus (N) emperor (Δ) [Despot]
Expanded: CΦNΔ = Σταυρέ Φύλαττε Νικήφορον Δεπότη
O Cross, protect Nikephoros Emperor/Despotate
If you have an interest in Byzantine coins and don't have Whitting's Byzantine Coins, you are missing out on a lot of pleasure and information. It has many excellent enlarged photographs and a lot of commentary.
Alexius I (1081-1118). The anonymous follis period lasted from 970 to about 1092 during the reign of Alexius I who issued the last anonymous folles and then reformed the coinage to include new denominations. Most of his base-metal coins have his name on them and he issued more different types than previous emperors. In the middle Byzantine coinage era (c. 700 to c. 1092) each emperor had only a few copper types. Starting with Alexius emperors have more types.
Alexius I, 1081-1118, reformed the coinage c. 1092 to include cup-shaped coins ("trachy") in gold, electrum (a gold-silver alloy), and a base-silver ("billon") alloy.
Alexius I, 1081-1118
18 mm. 3.94 grams.
A new denomination, the "tetarteron."
Bust of Christ facing
Bust of emperor holding labarum and globus cruciger.
Sear 1931. Constantinople mint.
Here is an off-site map of Europe in AD 1100. (The Byzantine empire is in pink. The part of Italy they had in 1000 has been lost and much of central Turkey has been lost, while some of the Balkans have been regained.)
The next page resumes with copper types from later emperors.
Go to the next page, "Late Byzantine AE, 1059-1204 (Constantine X to the fall of Constantinople to the crusaders)."
Return to page 2, "Byzantine-Coin Letters, Numerals, Denominations, and Dates."