The AE coins of Jovian
Roman emperor 27 June 363 - 16 Feb. 364.
A comprehensive list. ("AE" refers to coins that are copper or almost all copper.)
When emperor Julian II "The Apostate" (or "The Philosopher") was killed during his invasion of the Sasasanian empire (Persia, under Shapur II) the leaderless army chose Jovian to extract them from their predicament. He had to make a treaty that cost Rome territory, but managed to get the army out, only to die in his tent from carbon-monoxide poisoning from the brazier. He was succeeded by Valentinian after a reign of only eight months.
Jovian issued coins with four reverse legends:
AE1, c. 28 mm: VICTORIA ROMANORVM, emperor standing front, head right, holding labarum in right and Victory on globe in left (The coin at the right, from Constantinople)
AE3, c. 19 mm: VOT V in two lines within a wreath
AE3, c. 19 mm: VOT V MVLT X in four lines within a wreath
AE4, c. 14 mm: VICTORIA AVGVSTI N Victory standing left holding wreath and palm
The largest is scarce, but still very available. Both AE3's are common. They are "scarce" in RIC (Roman Imperial Coinage, volume VIII, by John Kent), but coins from mints in the east are much more common now than they were when RIC was written. The AE4 is from Rome only and extremely rare ("R4" in RIC) and very seldom offered.
There are several varieties:
Both AE3's come with obverse bust left and with bust right (but only from different mints--no mint has both left and right busts).
The AE1 comes with varieties of diadem: pearl-diadem, laurel and rosette diadem, and rosette-diadem.
The obverse legend is usually: DN IOVIAN-VS PF AVG
although some have an additional title: DN IOVIANVS PF PP AVG (PF PP = Pius Felix Perpetuus [coin below] where PP is the later Byzantine usage, not the "Pater Patriae" of the early empire.)
Jovian assumed power in the east and most of his coins are from eastern and central mints. The western mints Amiens and Trier did not mint at all for him. Lyon and Arles minted only the the third type (with RIC listing one R5 [unique] exception, RIC Arles 335, which is a mule and not a regular issue). Which mints issued which types are listed below the illustrations.
VICTORIA ROMANORVM, emperor standing, head right, with labarum in right and Victory on globe in left
28 mm. 6:00. 8.76 grams
pearl-diademed, draped and curiassed
RIC Antioch 228
29 mm. 6:00. 8.50 grams
laurel diademed, draped and curiassed
RIC Constantinople 176
29-25 mm. 12:00. 8.49 grams.
This one has the longer obverse legend with PF PP.
rosette-(and laurel?) diademed, draped and curiassed
RIC Thessalonica 237
VOT V in wreath
20-19 mm. 6:00. 2.42 grams.
RIC Siscia 423
19 mm. 6:00
RIC Heraclea 108
This type was minted with bust right at Siscia (RIC 423-424), Cyzicus (RIC 133), Antioch (RIC 230-231), and Alexandria (RIC 92).
This type was minted with bust left at Heraclea (RIC 108-109) and Constantinople (RIC 178).
VOT V MVLT X in four lines in wreath
20 mm. 6:00
RIC Siscia 426
20 mm. 12:30. 3.34 grams.
RIC Sirmium 118
21 mm. Remarkably large. 12:00. 3.46 grams.
RIC Thessalonica 239
This one has the longer obverse legend with
PF PP (Pius Felix Perpetuas)
20 mm. 12:00.
RIC Heraclea 110
This type was issued with bust right at Lyons (RIC 241), Arles (RIC 334, 334), Rome (RIC 332-334), Aquileia (RIC 247), Siscia (RIC 425-426), Sirmium (RIC 118-120), Thessalonica (RIC 239), Nicomedia (RIC 128-129), Cyzicus (RIC 132), and Antioch (RIC 230-231).
It was issued with bust left at Heraclea (RIC 110-111) and Constantinople (RIC 179).
VICTORIA AVGVSTI N, Victory left with wreath and palm branch
14 mm. 1.70 grams.
Mintmark, if any, not legible
RIC Rome 335 "R4" -- only two were known to Kent.
In RIC Kent comments that the mintmarks on the two examples he is aware of are uncertain,
but one might be R
This extremely rare type was minted only at Rome.
Jovian was succeeded by Valentinian. See here for coins of Valentinian and later emperors.
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